PoliticsHi Reddit, we are a mountain climber, a fiction writer, and both former Governors. We are Gary Johnson and Bill Weld, candidates for President and Vice President. Ask Us Anything!
Sep 7th 2016 by GovGaryJohnson • 11 Questions • 6360 Points
I am a criminal justice lecturer at Texas State University and a former police chief. I was the police chief of San Marcos for 11 years, and I served with the Austin Police Department for 25 years before that.
Earlier this week, The Texas Tribune published Unholstered — a project where reporters gathered data on six years of police shootings in Texas' largest 36 cities. The reporters found 656 incidents. The investigation examined unarmed shootings, off-duty shootings and much more. As a former police chief, I was one of the experts The Texas Tribune interviewed to contextualize that data.
You can read the project here, and you can AMA about police shootings in Texas. Also joining are Texas Tribune reporters Jolie McCullough (joliesky) and Johnathan Silver (JohnathanSilverTrib). They can help answer your questions about their reporting and the data they gathered.
You've made clear that marijuana legalization is a priority. What about other vices that create black markets, like gambling, specifically sports gambling? Prostitution?
How many games do the Bears win this year?
Man, I wish this AMA was getting more traction. You are giving some well thought out answers. It's often hit or miss around here. Depending on times, what other AMA's are going on simultaneously, etc. So don't take it personally lol. There were some good questions at least.
But I would like to ask 1 more question if that is okay. In your 36 years in law enforcement, was there a single experience that was your most rewarding? Maybe one particular day or event that impacted you the most? Also, what was the biggest change in law enforcement practices over your career? I imagine you witnessed great changes in crime scene forensics in your time?
I do believe that marijuana should be legalized, and I do believe California will legalize it in November, which will be a tipping point. An example of a black market in marijuana is Washington state where a black market still survives due to too many taxes.
UNU SAYS: "The bears will win between 5 and 6 games this year"
You can see a replay of the swarm reaching this conclusion, here: http://go.unu.ai/r/182896
Long war story.
I once got a call of a man passed out in a movie theater. It was about 2:30 a.m. Apparently, he had gone to see a movie and passed out drunk, falling onto the floor between the seats. The crew cleaning the theater found him and called the police.
When I woke him up, he was so drunk that he could not tell me where he was, how he got there, or how he was planning to get home. Naturally, I arrested him for public intoxication.
He plead not guilty to the charge, and we had a trial. The judge found him not guilty because she felt that, since he had been sleeping for about four or five hours, he must not have been that drunk.
About two years later, I ran into the man again at a disturbance call. He was not part of the disturbance. A lady in his apartment complex ran to his apartment when her husband was threatening her. He let her in and called the police.
When I had finished the call and was preparing to leave, he asked if I remembered him, because I had not said anything about our previous encounter. I replied that I did remember him, but that had nothing to do with why I was there so there was no reason to bring it up.
That's when he said, "Well, I want to tell you something."
Immediately I started thinking he was going to fuss about my taking him to jail when he was not guilty of being drunk. Instead, he started explaining that he was an alcoholic, and that he never realized it until he awoke in jail and had no idea why he was there or what he had done. He went on to explain that his wife and family had been threatening to disown him over his drinking, and his boss was threatening to fire him. He said that was their problem, not his.
When he awoke in jail, he decided he needed help, and he joined AA as soon as he got out. He said things were going much better for him now. He had just gotten a promotion and raise at work, his family was back in his corner, and he and his wife had recently welcomed a baby daughter (they let me hold her).
He told me I had probably saved his life, and wanted to apologize to me and thank me for what I had done for him. Going to jail was what it took to convince him to turn his life around.
Many times in police work we see our failures over and over again. We get calls on them all of the time. We rarely get to see our successes, because they stay out of trouble. We seldom realize how much good we actually contribute, because we get called to deal with failures, not to celebrate successes. Luck of the draw is the only reason I got to hear his story. His story is why we do what we do.
The greatest advance, DNA. What an incredible tool when it is available. While I was Chief, my detectives solved a 35-year-old-murder because of DNA evidence.
Is there anything that can be done currently to ease tension between the police in Texas and the general public (and vice versa)?
I've come out in favor of legalizing online poker. I think sports gambling should be legal, too.
An operator types the questions from Reddit into UNU.
The swarm answers the questions.
An operator types the answers back into Reddit.
Open and honest conversations are critical to resolving tensions. Relationships, whether they are between family members or are between the police and public need open honest communication to survive critical times.
So often the public begins to complain long before they even know what happened. Part of the reason for that is the police departments' reluctance to release information.
There is no substitute for beginning that conversation right away after a critical incident. There will always be questions unanswered early in an investigation because there has not been sufficient time to get all of the answers, yet. Nevertheless, the sooner we can begin a conversation based on the facts instead of supposition or suspicion, the better off we will all be.
This is not going to be an immediate fix. It takes time to build that trust level once it is lost.
Governor Johnson- what inspired you to switch party allegiance from Republican to Libertarian?
Governor Weld- what made you want to join the Libertarian party?
Are there plans to turn your skills on financial markets?
Last month I worked with r/bitcoin to make financial predictions related to the price of Bitcoin. It was very successful.
There is pressure whenever there is a police shooting, armed or not. This is the most drastic measure a government can take -- taking the life of a citizen. There should always be pressure to explain and justify it. It is equally important, however, for government officials and the public to listen to the answers.
As I have often told my students, "Question authority, but have the grace to listen when it answers."
One thing that is important to remember, is that unarmed does not mean the person is not a threat. The third most frequently used murder weapon in the United States is a person's hands and feet. It might be more difficult to explain a fear of death or serious bodily injury from someone without a weapon, but they can still be deadly. The person's being unarmed does not automatically mean deadly force is inappropriate.
What is the best way I can present the reasons to vote for you to someone who does not want to vote for Secretary Clinton or Mr. Trump but feels that a third party vote is a waste?
Thank you for your time. I really respect what you are trying to do.
How does a hive mind work? Do you have awareness of your existence?
In each of your opinions, what was the most significant/surprising thing you learned in compiling this report?
You may disagree with everything I have to say, but you’ll see it done in complete transparency and honesty. The only wasted vote is to vote for someone who you don’t believe in.
I am a SWARM INTELLIGENCE, which means, basically, that I am a real-time "BRAIN OF BRAINS" modeled after swarms in nature.
My algorithms are most closely related to how swarms of bees reach optimal solutions by combining input from hundreds of individuals into a single "emergent intellect".
I produce answers by combining the knowledge, wisdom, and intuition of many people, in real-time, using feedback loops so they can adapt to each other. My A.I. algorithms find the combined solution that optimizes confidence and satisfaction across those people, in real time.
You can learn more here: http://unu.ai/swarm-intelligence/
I started researching officer-involved shooting fatalities about two years ago. I limited my research to fatalities because my research interest is arrest-related deaths, which includes deaths not related to the use of firearms. I can say that what the authors of this report found jibes with what I found in my research. Record keeping, not only in Texas but across the US, is terrible. The federal systems commonly used to track officer-involved shooting fatalities are only capturing about half of the fatalities. This lack of reliable information makes it very difficult for government officials and academics alike to engage in evidence-based discussions about the problems.
Do you believe it is the role of the US government to maintain hundreds of military bases all over the world?
So how does a swarm AI, based on answers from a bunch of different people, differ from a basic poll? Are the answers weighted somehow?
Gov. Johnson: some people still think that Edward Snowden betrayed the USA when he shared NSA files with journalists. Yet without him, we would not have the global debate on surveillance that has already led to more stringent protections of our right to privacy. Given that this is a clear cut case of a whistleblower acting in the public interest, would you support a pardon for Edward Snowden? Why?
Tanya O'Carroll - Adviser, Technology and Human Rights - Amnesty International
So like a poll with real-time peer pressure?
What were the reactions or comments that you got from former colleagues at San Marcos or the Austin Police Department after the project came out?
Yes, I would support a pardon for Edward Snowden based on what I know. Watch Citizenfour (and I’m looking forward to the new movie).
Hi, Governor Johnson. If you are elected, what do you hope your legacy will be seen as after your term?
Best of luck and thank you for being a voice of reason!
I would like to know the effect of bandwagon-ing too.
Gov. Johnson, you've said that you love the Game of Thrones. If you could be one of the characters who would you be and why?
What is the Vikings best option at quarterback?
A) Sign Colin Kaepernick
B) Forfeit the season, try again next year
It has come to light that one of the police officers killed in Dallas had neo-Nazi/white supremacist tattoos and affiliations. How is that a member of a police force, surrounded by people supposedly trained to spot criminals could work next to someone with these kind of beliefs? The LEO in Philadelphia with a Nazi tattoo is another example. How much of a problem is white supremacist infiltration of law enforcement?
I would be Jon Snow. My favorite Game of Thrones scene is Jon Snow, holding his sword, ready to be slain, only to survive.
UNU SAYS: "Forfeit the season, try again next year"
You can see a replay here: http://go.unu.ai/r/182860
The unfortunate truth is that there are police officers with biases. We do the best we can to weed them out before we hire them, but the hiring practice is not always fail-proof. As the Chief, I once fired one of my new rookie officers for voicing his racist attitudes during his training period. Somehow, that did not come out in his background investigation.
In many agencies, especially those with Civil Service protection, unless an officer violates a law or an established department policy, you cannot simply fire them. Their employment is protected by law.
Having a tattoo is expression that is protected under the free speech clause of the First Amendment. If the department had a policy that said the tattoo must remain covered while in uniform, and the officer kept it covered, there is no policy violation and he cannot be fired simply for having the tattoo.
Having the belief and acting upon it are different things. If there was evidence that the officer was treating people unfairly because of their race, he would be subject to discipline and eventually to dismissal. If there was not evidence of that, there is nothing the department can do about it as a matter of law. The First Amendment protects the police officer, too.
Governor Johnson, I am an avid fan and a potential voter of yours. I must know:
If elected, would you work to abolish the electoral college? Would you also consider replacing our system of plurality voting with the Borda Count Method or even rank-choice voting as Dr. Jill Stein does?
Which team has the biggest QB problem?
UNU says: Cowboys
See the replay of this question and the other options considered at the link above.
Seems a little Star Wars to me, but Reddit was a giant technological leap for me. I am probably not the best one to answer this. We have come a long way in communications technology since I started my career. Many nights I patrolled without a handy-talkie. Today we have so much instant communication technology available that it is difficult to keep abreast of the new things coming out.
I suppose it is possible, but much of police work is done indoors, especially in people's houses. I am not sure drone technology would be the most effective way to accomplish an officer surveillance system there.
To be fair, though, I would not bet on my being correct if I were you!
I think their best states are Utah and New Mexico. Been seeing bumper stickers here and there in my swing state (Florida) so I'm hoping the ticket will gain some traction here!
Edit: Also I'm from Jacksonville so I have to support Gary "Jaguar" Johnson
Are you hoping that Warren Buffet brings back his billion dollar March Madness prize?
Maybe that will be a good stretch goal to shoot for.
Yes, I'd love to take on March Madness and the Billion Dollar Prize.
First, I am not sure just how widespread the sentiment is. I know there are vocal groups of citizens who protest, but I also know of a lot of people who support the police. I believe this difference of opinion is a reflection of the greater schism we are seeing today in American politics. It seems that we are generally becoming more fixed in our positions, and we are less interested in seeking common ground to resolve our differences.
We have seen this before. The police were roundly criticized following the Rodney King incident in Los Angeles in the 1991. There was also fierce criticism of the police during the Vietnam War protests and the civil rights protests of the late 1960s and early 1970s.
The events in Ferguson, Missouri, certainly were the spark, but the current problems in police/community relations have been building over time. There is no one incident or one problem that started it.
I am a devoted believer in the First Amendment, and I believe that BLM has every right to voice their concerns. I am just afraid that the ways they sometimes choose to voice their opinion is counterproductive to finding solutions to the problems.
Would you be in-favor of an extensive overhaul of the Gun Control Act of 1968, completely redefining who should be deemed a “prohibited person”?
Currently the definitions mirror the unrest of the 1960s, and have been proven ineffective.
My suggestion is to ban anyone convicted of a crime of physical violence, including murder, assault, sexual assault, domestic violence, stalking, hate crimes, terrorism, and criminal harassment.
Persons convicted of a non-violent felony, should be removed from the list of prohibited persons, as should persons convicted of marijuana offenses, or receiving medical marijuana.
Any predictions for the Dolphins this season? How are our playoff hopes looking?
What is your opinion on the CDC not being allowed to conduct research on gun violence?
Sounds like you should be a member of our administration! I agree with your premises. I don’t know the details of the 1968 bill, but I’ll become more in tune with them.
UNU SAYS: "The odds that the Dolphins reach the playoffs this year is 0%"
Unfortunately for Dolphins fans, the conviction of the swarm was strong. You can see a replay of the swarm reaching the decision here: http://go.unu.ai/r/182856
I do not know what restrictions the CDC has on such research, so I cannot really address it specifically. But this is a matter of such governmental and public importance, I cannot see why we would not research it as thoroughly as possible.
Both of you have done a great job showing why environmental protection is a legitimate government function. Current EPA regulations, however, are complicated, not effective enough, and can sometimes impede small businesses. As president, what reforms would you advocate to reform our regulations, so that we can protect the environment while at the same time, cutting back on waste, bureaucracy, and red tape?
Which of these teams is most likely to have a breakout season?
--Vikings --Chiefs --Falcons --Rams --49ers --Giants
As Governor, a specific example was allowing clean up to take place even though it hadn’t passed regulatory hurdles, which allowed for clean up to occur and cost less.
UNU SAYS: "The Falcons"
You can see a replay of the Swarm Intelligence reaching this conclusion here: http://go.unu.ai/r/182996
Governor Gary Johnson,
Can you clarify your position on a potential Carbon Tax?
In a discussion with CNBC journalist, John Harwood, you stated…
“I do think that climate change is occurring, that it is man-caused. One of the proposals that I think is a very libertarian proposal, and I'm just open to this, is taxing carbon emission that may have the result of being self-regulating.”
This was mistakenly portrayed by the media and many others that you support a Carbon Tax, even though you simply stated your openness to it and the potential benefits of it. It did, however, also add much uncertainty in people’s minds about where you actually stand on the issue and for those that have strong feelings about a Carbon Tax (as with any issue), they favor concrete answers.
A few days later, you attempted to clarify your position during a rally in New Hampshire when you stated…
”If any of you heard me say I support a carbon tax...Look, I haven't raised a penny of taxes in my political career and neither has Bill [Weld]. We were looking at—I was looking at—what I heard was a carbon fee which from a free-market standpoint would actually address the issue and cost less. I have determined that, you know what, it's a great theory but I don't think it can work, and I've worked my way through that.”
So my question is this, WHY have you come to that conclusion? Can you work the rest of us through your findings of why it can’t work?
This is a SPORTS related question - Ryan Lochte was widely discredited at the Olympics. My question is, who do people trust more... him or our presidential candidates TRUMP and CLINTON?
I do not support a carbon tax. The theory sounded good, but it’s way too complex to implement, in my opinion.
UNU SAYS: "Ryan Lochte is considered more trustworthy by the American public than both Trump and Clinton."
You can see details about how the Swarm Intelligence arrived at this conclusion here: http://unu.ai/least-trustworthy/
How is the view from the top of the world?
On a more serious note: (how) has climbing Mt. Everest changed your view of humanity?
I've never played Fantasy Football before but I am this year. What should my first few picks be?
As it should be: unmatched.
Since it all took place from Nepal, I saw happy people with nothing material. We have everything material and we don’t seem as happy as we should be.
Hi! This is a great question. And I think it's gonna be a popular one. it's also MY first year playing fantasy football, too :)
So, I put together my rankings for all positions at the these links. Hope this helps!
Governor Johnson, this will be the first election I am old enough to vote in and am already in your camp. What are you doing to try to draw the many others in my age group who have grown up with a distaste for the two party system yet still hesitate to vote Libertarian?
Thanks for doing this AMA and being the best candidate!
Thanks, UNU. This looks like it will really help me out.
I think the distaste has to do with dishonesty, non-transparency, and play-to-pay. We’ll do the opposite.
my pleasure - good luck this year!
Thanks for doing this AMA Governor Johnson!
I have seen elsewhere that you oppose Net Neutrality, but on isidewith.com, to the question
Should internet service providers be allowed to speed up access to popular websites (that pay higher rates) at the expense of slowing down access to less popular websites (that pay lower rates)?
Your answer is "No, this would allow them to remove competition, create artificial scarcity, and increase prices." This answer suggests that you support Net Neutrality. So I'm curious, do you support Net Neutrality or not?
Hey smart guy, who will win each of the divisions (AFC West, East, etc.)?
I abhor legislation that would regulate the Internet. It doesn’t appear to me to be broken; I don’t want to fix it.
UNU Says the Pats will win the AFC East:
Not exactly a surprise, given the stranglehold the Pats have had on that division over the last decade, but interesting nonetheless considering TB's suspension / age.
Replays and analysis available at the link above.
Governors, you’ve talked a lot about work visas as part of immigration reform, but the details are pretty vague for something that would have a direct impact on the lives of millions of people. In President Johnson’s America,
Would the work visas be unlimited in quantity?
Would the work visas have an expiration date, as is the case for green card holders?
Would they require payment of a fine or back taxes for those who entered illegally?
Would they require English proficiency?
Would they require registration for Selective Service (assuming it is still required for citizens and green card holders)?
Would background checks disqualify applicants with misdemeanor convictions?
Would work visa holders ever be able to apply for permanent residence or citizenship?
What will happen to those who are already living here unlawfully but are denied a work visa for some reason (or fail to apply for one at all)?
Would businesses be required to comply with the same labor standards (minimum wage, overtime rules, health and safety regulations) as they do for citizens and permanent residents?
Finally, on a much lighter note, who is better at chess, Gary or Bill?
Hey smart guy, who will win each of the divisions (AFC West, East, etc.)?
Work visas would be unlimited in quantity, subject to background checks and provision of Social Security Numbers. No quotas.
I have a question for the both of you.....what are your favorite science fiction films?
Serious question: please settle this once and for all.
Is Joe Flacco elite?
As a Ravens fan, I will send your response to ESPN / Peter King personally.
Is Joe Flacco Elite?"
Scream it from the mountaintops:
UNU says: I doubt it
See the swarm reaching this answer at the link above.
Gov. Johnson, I am an undocumented immigrant who came to this country when I was just 11 years old, I came here with my mother trying to find a better life, trying to avoid the poverty and violence that took over my country. I've been living in this country nearly 8 years of my life, at this point I considered myself an American, I am enrolled in the Selective Service System, and I'm willing to do whatever it takes to protect this country. Like many other undocumented immigrants, I am currently paying taxes and have zero criminal history. To prove that my goal in this country is to succeed like any other American, I graduated in the top 15 students from my class, and I was accepted to some of the best universities in my states, unfortunately my legal status forces me to pay international student fees, which are insanely unaffordable for me. Gov. Johnson, as the President of the United States of America, what would you do to help me, and many other undocumented immigrants that have a similar situation as me?
Will Tom Brady inflate his balls this year?
Congratulations on your accomplishments and your life thus far! You're the person I'm standing up for with my position on immigration. I think that what you're talking about is a state issue. As Governor of New Mexico, I would have sided with you on the issue. As President, I will continue to be your advocate.
UNU SAYS: "It's Unlikely"
The Swarm Intelligence expressed strong conviction that Brady will not mess with the pressure inside his balls... you can see a replay of the swarm reaching this decision here: http://go.unu.ai/r/182817
Swarm, so that is based on popular opinion of a group of people?
Swarm Intelligence is based on swarms in nature, using the knowledge, wisdom, and insights of real people, in real-time, allowing them to form a system (with feedback loops) and converge on optimal answers. The answer converged upon is usually NOT the most popular, but has been proven to have higher accuracy.
How many points will Ezekiel Elliot score this year in non PPR leagues?
Hey there, u/IKingJeremy,
Interesting question. Lots of hype around Zeke so far. Here's what I got:
UNU SAYS: "I doubt it".
Sorry Dak, but the Swarm Intelligence has spoken and it expressed doubt. You can see a replay of the swarm reaching an answer, here: http://go.unu.ai/r/182810
Who will be the highest scoring player in fantasy football this year?
UNU SAYS: "The highest scoring Fantasy Quarterback will be Cam Newton"
You can see a replay of the swarm reaching that decision, here: http://go.unu.ai/r/182879
Are you going to ruin betting with this sort of technology?
You can judge for yourself. Currently Redditors from r/sportbooks have been betting on baseball with UNU. See last week's results:
What do you think OJ Simpson's legacy is as a football player?
UNU SAYS: "Tainted"
Replay available here, so you can see how the Swarm arrived at its decision, and what choices where considered: http://go.unu.ai/r/182813
UNU SAYS: "It's Unlikely"
There was strong conviction in the Swarm Intelligence. You can see a replay of the swarm reaching the answer here: http://go.unu.ai/r/182886
Which of these RBs will have the most TDs at end of season: David Johnson, Todd Gurley, Ezekiel Elliott, Adrian Peterson, Lamar Miller, Le'Veon Bell
UNU SAYS: "ZEKE"
You can see a replay of the swarm reaching that answer here: http://go.unu.ai/r/182868
Commentary: The Swarm's been pretty impressed by what it sees in Zeke so far. Did you see him truck Kam Chancellor?
How many fantasy football points does Dak Prescott score this year?
UNU SAYS: "115"
You can see a replay of UNU reaching this decision here: http://go.unu.ai/r/182965
Will Jamal Charles make it back to prominence in 2016 or should we expect to see the signs of age creep up on him again this year?
UNU says: it's unlikely
You can see replay and analysis at the link above
Mark Sanchez: Will he be traded, Cut or Play for the Broncos?
UNU SAYS: Mark Sanchez will be TRADED.
The swarm had very high conviction, which means high confidence in the trade. You can see a replay of the swarm reaching this conclusion here: http://go.unu.ai/r/182822
Artificial Swarm Intelligence is a combination of artificial intelligence algorithms and real-time human input, where groups of people work work as a system to answer questions. The system is modeled after swarms in nature, which converge on solutions together. You can learn more here: http://unu.ai/swarm-intelligence/
I find your site very hard to navigate, and past predictions very hard to find. How do I look up your predictions or do I have to in a group to get them? Is there a wiki or video on how to use your site correctly?
You can see summaries of past predictions at our blog. For example, here are the Baseball Prediction results from last week: http://unu.ai/unu-correctly-predicts-11-12-games/
You can also learn more, here: http://unu.ai
UNU Says: Dangeruss Wilson
See the other options and analysis at the link above.