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HealthI just survived a roll over car crash and brain surgery at 16 AMA

Feb 20th 2017 by Ssgogo1 • 12 Questions • 48 Points

Hey Reddit! We are members of Obsidian Entertainment's design and publishing team, currently working on Pillars of Eternity II: Deadfire, Obsidian's very first sequel. We love RPGs, and we think we're pretty good at making them. Our roots go back to some of the classics of the genre, including Fallout 1 and 2, Baldur's Gate, Planescape: Torment, and many more. You might know us from games like Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic II: The Sith Lords, Fallout: New Vegas, and South Park: The Stick of Truth. We brought the classic, isometric cRPG back to modern audiences with Pillars of Eternity, and now we're making a sequel to that game, set in the Deadfire Archipelago, a collection of hundreds of islands spanning thousands of miles, that you can explore on board your ship. We're in our last day of crowdfunding that campaign over on Fig, so check it out if you're interested in knowing the details.

Our Proof!

Specifically, we are:

Mikey Dowling, PR Manager

Feargus Urquhart, CEO

J.E. "Josh" Sawyer, Design Director

Justin Britch, Lead Producer

Adam Brennecke, Lead Programmer/Executive Producer

Carrie Patel, Narrative Designer/Novelist

Eric Neigher, Assistant Waste Disposal Coordinator

Ask us anything, fellow adventurers!

EDIT: All right, wonderful Redditors, unfortunately, we have to get back to our Fig campaign, as there's only 4 hours to go! Thank you for your questions, it's been a blast! If you didn't/don't get your question answered here, Mikey and other members of the team are livestreaming on our Twitch channel, so feel free to ask them there! Much love from all of us on the Pillars II team!

Q:

did they hook u up with painkillers?

A:

Hello Bill Gates. What is your idea of success?


Q:

How stable is the planet configuration of the system? Has it reached a stability over long timescales like our solar system has, or is it a relatively young system were we would expect the bodies to still coalesce into larger objects over time?

A:

You're having a Baldur's Gate themed costume and pizza party in the Obsidian offices. Who dresses up as which NPC and what exactly is on a Bhaalspawn pizza?


Q:

Hello Judge Caprio!

What’s the craziest excuse you’ve ever heard in court?

A:

Thanks for doing this today!! Bates Motel has some really great wacky humour (which I love). For Freddie, do you feel that this has shaped your writing style in any way?


Q:

When you were going through chemo, did you ever act like sméagol in front of a mirror and scream "my precious"?

A:

sandra, what was your reaction when you read the catfight script?


Q:

If you could give 19 year old Bill Gates some advice, what would it be?

A:

How stable is the planet configuration of the system? Has it reached a stability over long timescales like our solar system has, or is it a relatively young system were we would expect the bodies to still coalesce into larger objects over time?


Q:

You're having a Baldur's Gate themed costume and pizza party in the Obsidian offices. Who dresses up as which NPC and what exactly is on a Bhaalspawn pizza?

A:

I am currently taking oxy-codone and morphine


Q:

Warren Buffett has always said the measure is whether the people close to you are happy and love you. It is also nice to feel like you made a difference - inventing something or raising kids or helping people in need.

A:

The stability of the system is still unclear, because it is a complex dynamical system, the planets' masses are not yet precisely determined, we don't know yet the orbital period of the 7th planet, and there could be more planets. More on this soon!


Q:

This question needs to go to the top!

A:

One of the craziest excuses I ever heard was from a man who received a speeding ticket, and he said he didn't realize how hard he was pushing on the gas pedal because he'd just bought a new pair of shoes that were tight.


Q:

I don't think I would be able to have started to write without Kerry's support. I feel that doing Bates Motel and being a part of a long running tv show, showed me that writing and directing was something I really wanted to do. I always had a slightly unfocused sense of wanting to write one day in the future, but Bates Motel honed me in the sort of thing I wanted to write. --FH

Freddie has an inherent idiosyncratic and wacky sense of humor, so it would have crept into anything he would have written...including dark things. It would always infuse in his writing, the way he looked at the character of Norman...little things in scenes that are so subtle. Little touches that made the character very endearing...that's pure Freddie.-- KE

A:

Dude. So many fucking times you wouldn't believe it. My mother used to ask me to do it for people.

Other favourites included Lord Voldemort and Sinead O'Connor.


Q:

Sandra: I was immediately intrigued by Page 2. Actually even the bottom of Page 1. I'm trying to remember the first scene at the breakfast table. Immediately, I got the tone and by the end of Act I, at the first encounter that Veronica and Ashley have, I was totally hooked.

A:

I would explain that smartness is not single dimensional and not quite as important as I thought it was back then. I would say you might explore the developing world before you get into your forties. I wasn't very good socially back then but I am not sure there is advice that would fix that - maybe I had to be awkward and just grow up....


Q:

The stability of the system is still unclear, because it is a complex dynamical system, the planets' masses are not yet precisely determined, we don't know yet the orbital period of the 7th planet, and there could be more planets. More on this soon!

A:

This question needs to go to the top!


Q:

Do you blame your friend who was driving? Do they feel guilty?

A:

Do you ever disguise yourself and just walk around incognito?


Q:

Does TRAPPIST-1 itself pose any hazards to the planets like radiation or flares?

A:

Will there be a romance option for the intelligent weapon?


Q:

what is the toughest verdict you had to hand down?

A:

Freddie,

How does it feel going from playing more lighthearted fantasy stuff (Spiderwick Chronicles, Charlie & The Chocolate Factory) to someone really dark like Norman Bates?

Also, happy belated birthday fellow Februarian!


Q:

Stop waiting, write your book please

with writing like this, i'd buy it in a heartbeat

A:

Those punches look real! Did you do your own fight scenes?


Q:

Do you ever disguise yourself and just walk around incognito?

A:

Does TRAPPIST-1 itself pose any hazards to the planets like radiation or flares?


Q:

Will there be a romance option for the intelligent weapon?

A:

He feels insanely guilty but no i don't blame him


Q:

I sometimes wear a hat. For example when I did college tours with my son I wanted the focus to be totally on him. A lot less people recognize me when I have a hat on or else they realize I am trying to be incognito.

Mostly when people do recognize me they are super nice so I don't feel it is a burden to be noticed most of the time.

A:

TRAPPIST-1 shows one flare (eruption) every week and a strong one every 6 months. Its X ray activity is not yet very well known and could be also a thread for any life there. But if the planets have an atmosphere and magnetic field this could limit the level of high energy flux. This is still work under investigation to estimate those levels.


Q:

This isn't that kind of game...

A:

I am very reluctant to incarcerate anyone unless it's warranted. One defendant was a repeat offender who I thought had become rehabilitated, but unfortunately he continued his old ways and I had to send him to prison.


Q:

I don't think that Norman is really dark. Bates Motel has more humor than anything else I've done. It may be a dark humor but there's as much humor as anything else. That is what makes it something special. -F

I think Norman doesn't consider himself dark. He's very hopeful and optimistic, but the world around him is very dark. - K

A:

Omg thank you. I'm actually blushing!


Q:

Anne: Yes we did. 95%.

Sandra: Yeah I'd say 95% of what they ended up using in the film was me and Anne.

Anne: Oh yeah it was - we had stunt doubles and we watched them. They helped us tremendously with the choreography.

Sandra: And they were in there too.

Anne: They were incredibly helpful. They work very fast. They are used to movies with budget that take 10 days to shoot and we had 1 day. I think we could only get it because our crew was so great with helping us sell the choreography quickly and well.

A:

I sometimes wear a hat. For example when I did college tours with my son I wanted the focus to be totally on him. A lot less people recognize me when I have a hat on or else they realize I am trying to be incognito.

Mostly when people do recognize me they are super nice so I don't feel it is a burden to be noticed most of the time.


Q:

TRAPPIST-1 shows one flare (eruption) every week and a strong one every 6 months. Its X ray activity is not yet very well known and could be also a thread for any life there. But if the planets have an atmosphere and magnetic field this could limit the level of high energy flux. This is still work under investigation to estimate those levels.

A:

This isn't that kind of game...


Q:

Details of the crash?

A:

What do you personally find as your greatest achievement?


Q:

My question is simple... What's next? I mean I'm sure all the excitement of discovering and announcing this find is still fresh but what are the next steps involved in finding out more about this discovery? What information do you think is "discoverable" about this system in the near future?

A:

You're in Waste Management? So what you're saying it is that you're the Tony Soprano of Irvine?


Q:

Hi from the UK! Do you think the presence of cameras in the court changes how people behave?

A:

It seems like I just got into the show only like a year ago, and I have been completely into it since season 1 was released on Netflix. What is your favorite season you have done? Least favorite?

EDIT: How did it feel for you when you got to direct an episode as well?


Q:

I don't know how it is in Ireland but in the US there is a certain amount of time you have to sue depending on the situation, sometimes it's years so you may be able to still. Also, sueing someone isn't always about "punishing" that person in particular, it's about setting an example and bringing to light a certain problem, in your case it's the fact that your doctor didn't take you serious because of your age. Ageism. There are many laws in place to protect elderly people from ageism but maybe not for younger people since it usually isn't an issue… Anyway, really glad you are doing well and thanks for sharing everything, it's really interesting and important.

A:

What would you do if you couldn't act?


Q:

Hello Bill Gates. What is your idea of success?

A:

My question is simple... What's next? I mean I'm sure all the excitement of discovering and announcing this find is still fresh but what are the next steps involved in finding out more about this discovery? What information do you think is "discoverable" about this system in the near future?


Q:

You're in Waste Management? So what you're saying it is that you're the Tony Soprano of Irvine?

A:

I don't remeber much more then we tried to pass someone they sped up to not let us pass. There was oncoming traffic so we slowed down to merge back but they slowed too to not let us then we swerved and i blacked out.


Q:

Although the Foundation work is super promising and will be the biggest thing over the decades ahead I still think the chance to be part of the software revolution empowering people was the biggest thing I have gotten to do.

Right now I am very focused on making sure we successfully eradicate polio - that will be amazing if we do it - as good as shipping even the best software product.

A:

NASA's Kepler/K2 is currently observing TRAPPIST-1! The spacecraft has been monitoring the brightness of the star since December 15, 2016 and will continue to do so until March 04, 2017. That's over 70 days of data. Scientists will be able to define the orbital period of the 7th planet. They may also be able to see a turnover (or reversal) in the transit timing variations which will allow scientists to refine the planet mass estimates. Perhaps we'll even find additional transiting planets. The raw data will be placed in the public archive immeiately after the observing campaign finishes. It should be available to community by March 6th. This is one of the many ways that scientists will be studying the TRAPPIST-1 system. - Natalie Batalha, Kepler Project Scientist

https://keplerscience.arc.nasa.gov/raw-data-for-k2-campaign-12-to-be-released-after-downlink.html


Q:

More like I have to SING soprano whenever Feargus demands.

A:

For the most part, court proceedings proceed in the same fashion with or without the cameras, however as always there are a few who think they are on a stage and act accordingly.


Q:

Hmmmm.... I think season 4 and 5 have been perhaps the most challenging. Especially 5 because it's that sense of time running out and the countdown beginning. We wanted to make sure all the characters had a fitting conclusion. They were also the most fun to play for me. Norman changed and matured over these seasons and it was a lot of fun to play. - F

It's kind of like asking which child is your favorite. I love them all for different reasons. I'm closest to the last two right now, but I have to say I sort of love season 2 because it was a time when Norma was starting to hope that she could live the life she had dreamed. I thought that was really lovely and my favorite episode was the trying out for the musical. I remember questioning the decision to have that episode. There's just a lot of good storytelling in season 2. -K

A:

Y'know something, since this was brought up earlier I haven't stopped thinking about it. I'm considering my options now more than I ever have and thinking about getting in touch with a solicitor to see if I have a case.

But suing takes money too, so that's another unfortunate issue. I'd have to be reaaaally certain I'd win, and with the sate of the Irish court system I doubt I would.

Thank you for commenting, I appreciate it. :)


Q:

Sandra:

Anne: I'd schmact. Oh no that IS what I do.

Alicia: I would want to be a nutritionist.

Sandra: You would be excellent! You're basically a nutritionist now. You ARE. Am I going to be shameless because you have your line...what is it called?

Alicia: Mykind Organics.

Anne: The sprays are amazing.

Anne: I would love to be a teacher. I like being a mom a lot. That or President. I think BOTH people want me to do. Almost the same.

Alicia: A chef would be fun too.

Anne: I'd want to be a Picass-ette. One of the people who get painted all over.

Sandra: Wow these guys have a lot of other interests - I appreciate that.

Anne: Sandra you have not answered.

Sandra: I want a little clarification. Is this if you couldn't act now, like if we started our life from now...

Alicia: Take it that way yeah.

Sandra; I would say if I had been exposed to Pina Bausch some time in my youth I would have never become an actor. I would have continued dancing.

Anne/Alicia: [Sigh together]

Anne: That's incredible.

A:

Warren Buffett has always said the measure is whether the people close to you are happy and love you. It is also nice to feel like you made a difference - inventing something or raising kids or helping people in need.


Q:

NASA's Kepler/K2 is currently observing TRAPPIST-1! The spacecraft has been monitoring the brightness of the star since December 15, 2016 and will continue to do so until March 04, 2017. That's over 70 days of data. Scientists will be able to define the orbital period of the 7th planet. They may also be able to see a turnover (or reversal) in the transit timing variations which will allow scientists to refine the planet mass estimates. Perhaps we'll even find additional transiting planets. The raw data will be placed in the public archive immeiately after the observing campaign finishes. It should be available to community by March 6th. This is one of the many ways that scientists will be studying the TRAPPIST-1 system. - Natalie Batalha, Kepler Project Scientist

https://keplerscience.arc.nasa.gov/raw-data-for-k2-campaign-12-to-be-released-after-downlink.html

A:

More like I have to SING soprano whenever Feargus demands.


Q:

I know you blacked out, but do you know what happened to the person you were trying to pass? Did they stop or get in any trouble for causing an accident?

A:

If you could give 19 year old Bill Gates some advice, what would it be?


Q:

What is the protocol if you do find any signs of life on any of the exoplanets?

A:

When are we gonna see you guys get your hands on the Fallout Franchise again?


Q:

Some of the traffic violations you have been in the favor of the defendant since the signage was wrong or confusing. Do those issues get resolved after? The overnight parking ban is a matter of 3-4 hours. Seems silly, can we get rid of it?!

A:

Did any of the cast and crew members keep any of the props? I think one of the room keys would've been a pretty cool souvenir! :)


Q:

Damn..so sorry to hear of what you've been through, but thrilled that you are alive and ok :)

A:

What do you personally find as your greatest achievement?


Q:

What is the protocol if you do find any signs of life on any of the exoplanets?

A:

When are we gonna see you guys get your hands on the Fallout Franchise again?


Q:

I am not sure yet or if they were even identified. I'll update you once i hear back from the sheriff.

A:

I would explain that smartness is not single dimensional and not quite as important as I thought it was back then. I would say you might explore the developing world before you get into your forties. I wasn't very good socially back then but I am not sure there is advice that would fix that - maybe I had to be awkward and just grow up....


Q:

We do not yet have a protocol. Most likely we will make a tentative discovery, that will take longer to confirm. SS

A:

Zenimax owns the IP for Fallout, so that is entirely up to them. We'd love to do another Fallout game!


Q:

When signage is defective, the bureau of prosecution reports the issue to the traffic engineer.

The overnight parking ban was originally created to allow the streets to be swept by street sweepers. This is no longer the case. However, there is an issue with some narrow streets, which would block emergency vehicles from entering.

A:

Oh yeah. I kept the manager's badge! Norman is more of a manager than ever before in season 5 so I was keen to keep the badge.- F

I kept some things from the house but nothing of great significance (I just liked them!) I also have the bunny in Norman's room that belonged to Emma. I also have a Norma dress. - K


Q:

Thank you pal. :) I'm thrilled too!

A:

Although the Foundation work is super promising and will be the biggest thing over the decades ahead I still think the chance to be part of the software revolution empowering people was the biggest thing I have gotten to do.

Right now I am very focused on making sure we successfully eradicate polio - that will be amazing if we do it - as good as shipping even the best software product.


Q:

We do not yet have a protocol. Most likely we will make a tentative discovery, that will take longer to confirm. SS

A:

Zenimax owns the IP for Fallout, so that is entirely up to them. We'd love to do another Fallout game!


Q:

Random...I hate watching them yet I do sometimes. I literally just saw a video on a subreddit of a car trying to pass and crashing into a truck. 3 people were ejected and died. Glad you're ok!

A:

Can you still jump over an office chair from a standing position?

Edit: Reference for those who need it.


Q:

If you do find signs of life will it be a top priority to inform the public?

A:

Thanks for the answer! New Vegas is the absolutely best game in the Fallout universe!


Q:

Hi from Bangalore, India. Love your show. When are you going to run for President?

A:

If you could've changed one thing in the Bates Motel storyline, what would it be?


Q:

That's so scary, were you certain it was cancer right away? How quickly did you adjust to beating it?

I had a scare late last year for a different kind of cancer but luckily it was just a scare.

A:

Hey Bill! I have a question pertaining to an issue in the U.S. and it's one that we're all get sick of hearing.

Do you think social media - and perhaps the internet in general - has played a role in helping divide this country?

Instead of expanding knowledge and obtaining greater understandings of the world, many people seem to use it to

1) seek and spread information - including false information - confirming their existing biases and beliefs, and

2) converse and interact only with others who share their worldview

(these are things I'm guilty of doing myself)

Follow up q: What steps should we take to help bridge this social, cultural, economic, educational and regional divide?


Q:

If you do find signs of life will it be a top priority to inform the public?

A:

Thanks for the answer! New Vegas is the absolutely best game in the Fallout universe!


Q:

Umm thanks i think?!

A:

No. Perhaps a small chair - a stool. I do exercise and ski but my main sport is tennis which doesn't involve jumping. Some people jump over the net but that isn't part of the sport.


Q:

It's part of our charter that NASA "provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information concerning its activities and the results thereof," so, yes, we would inform the public. -- Stephanie

Here's a link to the charter: https://www.nasa.gov/offices/ogc/about/space_act1.html

A:

Thank you!

(P.S., I agree with you... or maybe Fallout 2. It's a toss up).


Q:

As a young boy I was told that we all had equal opportunity in the United States, and that through hard work and perseverance, we can be anything even President. I did get involved in politics, and in my early 20's was elected into the Providence City Council. Thereafter, I ran for the Mayor of Providence and was defeated. So, I guess my aspirations to be President were some what unrealistic.

A:

In my own heart, everyone would live happily ever after. -F


Q:

Well I was sick for about a year before the diagnosis, and my GP kept telling me it was just anaemia and eventually hypochondria. I knew inside something wasn't right, so I googled it one day and my cancer came up. I shut the laptop, pretended I didn't see the result. Don't self-diagnose via Google right? That's what a hypochondriac does.

When the word cancer was mentioned first by a doctor, I knew. They ran more tests to be sure and everything, so my parents held out hope. But I knew. I screamed and cried and had to be sedated and cried some more. That lasted about a fortnight. Then I grabbed my diagnosis by the balls and set to work beating the shit out of it.

I'm sorry you went through that, but I'm really glad that you're okay and it was just a scare. It's not a nice experience! <3

A:

This is a great question. I felt sure that allowing anyone to publish information and making it easy to find would enhance democracy and the overall quality of political debate. However the partitioning you talk about which started on cable TV and might be even stronger in the digital world is a concern. We all need to think about how to avoid this problem. It would seem strange to have to force people to look at ideas they disagree with so that probably isn't the solution. We don't want to get to where American politics partitions people into isolated groups. I am interested in anyones suggestion on how we avoid this.


Q:

It's part of our charter that NASA "provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information concerning its activities and the results thereof," so, yes, we would inform the public. -- Stephanie

Here's a link to the charter: https://www.nasa.gov/offices/ogc/about/space_act1.html

A:

Thank you!

(P.S., I agree with you... or maybe Fallout 2. It's a toss up).


Q:

What do you remember about the surgery? Does your brain or head still hurt?

A:

Hey Bill! I have a question pertaining to an issue in the U.S. and it's one that we're all get sick of hearing.

Do you think social media - and perhaps the internet in general - has played a role in helping divide this country?

Instead of expanding knowledge and obtaining greater understandings of the world, many people seem to use it to

1) seek and spread information - including false information - confirming their existing biases and beliefs, and

2) converse and interact only with others who share their worldview

(these are things I'm guilty of doing myself)

Follow up q: What steps should we take to help bridge this social, cultural, economic, educational and regional divide?


Q:

that was your chance to use the phrase "prime directive" in a serious way, you blew it

A:

Pillars of Eternity: Deadfire is surprisingly Obsidian's first opportunity to develop a sequel. What were some ideas you had for potential sequels to your past games?

Keep up the good work and I can't wait for Deadfire.


Q:

Hello and good morning, your Honor!

Born and raised in Lil Rhody here. My question to you is:

Do you get as excited as I do when someone or something from our state ends up on national TV or on a website like this that's viewed by millions?

Every time I see one of your videos pop up on here I'm always very happy to see it. Thanks for entertaining us and thanks for being an understanding gentleman.

A:

Hey Freddie! Love the show and everyone's acting, y'all are awesome :D

What are you planning on doing after Bates Motel is over? Were you perhaps already approached by someone for a new project (movie/show)? Thanks and have a nice day!


Q:

what were your symptoms?

A:

What kind of technological advancement do you wish to see in your lifetime?


Q:

that was your chance to use the phrase "prime directive" in a serious way, you blew it

A:

Pillars of Eternity: Deadfire is surprisingly Obsidian's first opportunity to develop a sequel. What were some ideas you had for potential sequels to your past games?

Keep up the good work and I can't wait for Deadfire.


Q:

I was awake and going before and aftery surgery so i remeber it all, it was just to drain the blood bleeding from an artery in my brain.

A:

This is a great question. I felt sure that allowing anyone to publish information and making it easy to find would enhance democracy and the overall quality of political debate. However the partitioning you talk about which started on cable TV and might be even stronger in the digital world is a concern. We all need to think about how to avoid this problem. It would seem strange to have to force people to look at ideas they disagree with so that probably isn't the solution. We don't want to get to where American politics partitions people into isolated groups. I am interested in anyones suggestion on how we avoid this.


Q:

LOL, we don't have a "prime directive," but we do have Planetary Protection policy. It's sort of like the prime directive, but very real. Basically, we don't want to go looking for life only to find that we brought it with us from Earth. Read more here: https://planetaryprotection.nasa.gov/ -- Stephanie

A:

I wanted us to do a sequel to Alpha Protocol called Beta Contocol, just for the pun in the title. That was when I got my first demotion.


Q:

I am a big cheerleader for Rhode Island, and I am delighted with any favorable publicity for our great state. I think we have an extraordinary quality of life here. and we should all be very grateful.

A:

I think I'm still in mourning.--FH

I'm doing development. Two projects. --KE


Q:

I had all the classic Hodgkins symptoms as well as a few more serious ones, as the tumours grew.

  • Swollen, lumpy armpits/groin.
    *Night-sweats - I'd have to get up at night and change my PJs as well as the towel under me
    *Sudden, inexplicable weight-loss
    *Fatigue
    *Wracking, perpetual cough
    *Anaemia
    *Fevers or chills
    *Itchiness in my legs and arms
    *Constant chest infections
    *Shortness of breath when walking short distances or climbing steps
A:

The big milestone is when computers can read and understand information like humans do. There is a lot of work going on in this field - Google, Microsoft, Facebook, academia,... Right now computers don't know how to represent knowledge so they can't read a text book and pass a test.

Another whole area is vaccines. We need a vaccine for HIV, Malaria and TB and I hope we have them in the next 10-15 years.


Q:

LOL, we don't have a "prime directive," but we do have Planetary Protection policy. It's sort of like the prime directive, but very real. Basically, we don't want to go looking for life only to find that we brought it with us from Earth. Read more here: https://planetaryprotection.nasa.gov/ -- Stephanie

A:

I wanted us to do a sequel to Alpha Protocol called Beta Contocol, just for the pun in the title. That was when I got my first demotion.


Q:

But did you die?

A:

If you could create a new IP and business with Elon Musk, what would you make happen?


Q:

So do you call it the prime directive internally? Please?

A:

I've heard a few people suggest that you guys get another crack at a Spy RPG, but this time setting it in the Archer universe.


Q:

Hello your Honor. If you could, what is one thing, about the judiciary system that you would change?

A:

Freddie- What is it like going FULL mother.... like wig and everything?


Q:

What was the funniest moment during your ordeal with cancer?

A:

Just wanted to reply to say that I love you Bill


Q:

So do you call it the prime directive internally? Please?

A:

I've heard a few people suggest that you guys get another crack at a Spy RPG, but this time setting it in the Archer universe.


Q:

You know i am hedging with a no but hey anythings possible

A:

We need clean, reliable cheap energy - which we don't have. It is too bad the sun doesn't shine all the time and the wind doesn't blow all the time. The Economist had a good piece on this this week. So we need some invention - perhaps miracle batteries or super safe nuclear or making sun into gasoline directly.


Q:

For me personally, inside my brain, sure. :) I guess that's very "internal." -- Stephanie

A:

That would actually be amazing, holy balls.


Q:

In my judgement, the judicial system in Rhode Island, ranks among the best in the country.

A:

It was funny when Vera and I would wonder around in the same dress and wig... -F


Q:

There were honestly so many!

My BFF used to put her hands on my head and pretend to be a faith healer when we were in public. She'd be saying things like "Praise JesusAH! Exercise the demons from this sick child!" and I'd roll my eyes and pretend to speak in tongues.

Not a lot of people found that one funny. I did.

Another fave was when I got drunk and ripped my wig off at a Drake concert to get him to notice me.

It worked. Got a shout-out. Regret nothing.

A:

Thanks!


Q:

For me personally, inside my brain, sure. :) I guess that's very "internal." -- Stephanie

A:

That would actually be amazing, holy balls.


Q:

What are your goals after you recover?

A:

What do you think is the most pressing issue that we could feasibly solve in the next ten years?


Q:

Great presentation everyone! When/how will you be able to determine if there are signs of an oxygen rich atmosphere?

There was a lot of speculation before the conference that you may have already detected that.

A:

Do you think Stannis actually knew what obsidian was before Tarly told him?


Q:

Hello your Honor, Can you tell us about any cases where you saw the defendant years later? And if they did or did not turn their lives around, how so?

Thank you, I love the show. You are so down to earth and sensible even when dealing with the biggest knuckleheads.

A:

Hello Freddie, :)

Just wanted to say I'm a big fan of your work! My question is which dead Bates Motel character would you bring back to life?


Q:

What were the odds of a positive outcome for you?

A:

In your talk at Columbia University last month, you and Warren Buffet both emphasized the importance of “curiosity” as a personal quality.

Do you believe curiosity is a trait that is naturally inherited or a trait that can be cultivated and strengthened? If the latter, what methods would you recommend for people to develop and stimulate their own curiosity?


Q:

Great presentation everyone! When/how will you be able to determine if there are signs of an oxygen rich atmosphere?

There was a lot of speculation before the conference that you may have already detected that.

A:

Do you think Stannis actually knew what obsidian was before Tarly told him?


Q:

Get back to work, get back on track with school and i was planning to climb mt kilimanjaro this summer.

A:

A lot of people feel a sense of isolation. I still wonder if digital tools can help people find opportunities to get together with others - not Tinder but more like adults who want to mentor kids or hang out with each other. It is great that kids go off and pursue opportunities but when you get communities where the economy is weak and a lot of young people have left then something should be done to help.


Q:

It's going to be awhile before we find an oxygen rich atmosphere. JWST launch in fall 2018, so we will have to wait to try until sometime after that. It turns out some oxygen-rich atmospheres might exist that are not created by life, so to associate oxygen will require care. I hope we will be able to find, identify, and announce in a few years! --SS

A:

He knew nothing, Jon Snow.


Q:

An aggressive panhandler appeared before me more than 20 times, and I told him that if he continued I would have no choice but to send him to jail. I did not see him for one year thereafter. One day, I encountered him on a downtown street and he came running up to me, thanking me profusely for changing his life. Happily, I asked him how I changed his life and he replied: "I now take the train to Boston and panhandle outside of South Station and make 3 times more than as I was making in Providence."

A:

I guess everyone always wanted Jiao to come back. I guess the question was if she ever really died. But I guess it's too late for that one. - F

Blair Watson. I really liked Blair. - K


Q:

Because I was so young and "mentally fragile" at the time, nobody would ever give me a straight answer on that one in case I had a second emotional breakdown. Instead they used flowery language and dressed it up to make me think I had a really good chance.

For example, if I asked the odds I would get "your cancer has the highest odds of survival out of every kind!" instead of "in stage 4 cases, the odds of survival drop from 90% to 65%."

Due to my lung tumour, I would imagine I had a 50/50 chance.

I must ask my oncologist the next time I see her!

Also, Hodgkin Lymphoma does actually have the highest cure rate of any cancer - 90% in the first two stages, 80% in the third and anywhere from 65% below in the fourth.

A:

Good question. I think having parents and teachers reinforce your curiosity and explain what they are fascinated with makes a big difference. A lot of people lose their curiosity as they get older which is a shame. One thing that helps nowadays is that if you get confused about something it is easier than ever to find an article or video to make things clear.


Q:

It's going to be awhile before we find an oxygen rich atmosphere. JWST launch in fall 2018, so we will have to wait to try until sometime after that. It turns out some oxygen-rich atmospheres might exist that are not created by life, so to associate oxygen will require care. I hope we will be able to find, identify, and announce in a few years! --SS

A:

He knew nothing, Jon Snow.


Q:

Were you driving the car or was someone else? Hope you recover speedily!

A:

What kind of technological advancement do you wish to see in your lifetime?


Q:

Hey guys! Love this discovery, I got chills when I saw the headline.

My question is regarding the orbits of these planets. How exactly do yall think the planets' gravity is affecting the other planets?

If the innermost planets are tidally locked, would they get slightly disrupted by passing other planets?

Are their orbits not entirely elliptic? Could they be slightly "wavy" due to other planets' gravitational pulls?

Thanks for doing this AMA! I hope my question doesn't get lost in the masses :)

A:

This is probably only me, but I REALLY want to make a wrestling RPG.


Q:

Good morning, Judge Caprio! Love your show.

Massachusetts and Rhode Island drivers sometimes rank as the worst in the nation. What common 'driving culture' misbehavior(s) would you correct to most improve New England driving?

Edit: 'sticking your nose out so you block traffic, just so you can turn sooner' drives me nuts.

A:

Freddie, What's your favorite norman bates quote?


Q:

Are there different odds of it coming back? All the best to you tho man!

A:

What are you most curious about, Bill?


Q:

Hey guys! Love this discovery, I got chills when I saw the headline.

My question is regarding the orbits of these planets. How exactly do yall think the planets' gravity is affecting the other planets?

If the innermost planets are tidally locked, would they get slightly disrupted by passing other planets?

Are their orbits not entirely elliptic? Could they be slightly "wavy" due to other planets' gravitational pulls?

Thanks for doing this AMA! I hope my question doesn't get lost in the masses :)

A:

This is probably only me, but I REALLY want to make a wrestling RPG.


Q:

My best friend was driving, he left the crash unhurt and was back to school/work the next day.

A:

The big milestone is when computers can read and understand information like humans do. There is a lot of work going on in this field - Google, Microsoft, Facebook, academia,... Right now computers don't know how to represent knowledge so they can't read a text book and pass a test.

Another whole area is vaccines. We need a vaccine for HIV, Malaria and TB and I hope we have them in the next 10-15 years.


Q:

So glad we can finally share the chills! The planets' gravity is affecting each other in leading to what we call transit timing variations (TTVs) which is at the basis of how we can estimate the masses of the TRAPPIST-1 planets. When planets are close together and their orbits are in a certain spacing, they interact with each other through gravity, causing the timing of their transits to change a little as the planets tug on each other. By measuring this change, we can determine the mass of the planets. By knowing precisely the size and mass of the planets, we can determine their bulk density, and geophysicists can then help us better understand their interiors.

Then next to this, there will most likely be some tidal heating and significant tides on the planets that would be water worlds!

The constraints on the orbital eccentricity of the planets are a work in progress and the amplitude of the effects described above will depend strongly on those. So let's see!

It is really just the beginning for the exploration of this system. Spitzer helped us lift the fail on its architecture, now we can initiate its characterization--the venture for the generation to come!

J.d.W.

A:

Can you smell what the (black and shiny) rock is cooking!?


Q:

I have found that early childhood education, including safety on the highways, would be the most appropriate way to address this issue.

A:

Laughs Mother! The funeral scene when Norman is giving the eulogy, it perfectly encapsulates that dark humor...balanced with that heartbreaking insanity underneath it is. On the surface, it's all incredibly funny. --FH

That low guttural noise he makes. Whenever he gets close to a girl, he breathes and it comes out like a gurgle noise. That noise will always remind me of Norman Bates.--KE


Q:

The odds of my cancer coming back in the same place, same manner are virtually none.

If I'm gonna get it again it'll most probably be somewhere else. Which is both comforting and terrifying, but hey - variety is the spice of life.

Thanks dude!

A:

I still find the creation of life and the way the brain works the most fascinating areas. Nick Lane has some great books exploring what we know about how life started. It is amazing how little we know about the brain still but I expect we will know a lot more in 10 years.


Q:

So glad we can finally share the chills! The planets' gravity is affecting each other in leading to what we call transit timing variations (TTVs) which is at the basis of how we can estimate the masses of the TRAPPIST-1 planets. When planets are close together and their orbits are in a certain spacing, they interact with each other through gravity, causing the timing of their transits to change a little as the planets tug on each other. By measuring this change, we can determine the mass of the planets. By knowing precisely the size and mass of the planets, we can determine their bulk density, and geophysicists can then help us better understand their interiors.

Then next to this, there will most likely be some tidal heating and significant tides on the planets that would be water worlds!

The constraints on the orbital eccentricity of the planets are a work in progress and the amplitude of the effects described above will depend strongly on those. So let's see!

It is really just the beginning for the exploration of this system. Spitzer helped us lift the fail on its architecture, now we can initiate its characterization--the venture for the generation to come!

J.d.W.

A:

Can you smell what the (black and shiny) rock is cooking!?


Q:

How long until you go back to school?

A:

Just wanted to reply to say that I love you Bill


Q:

What are the most promising ways to search a planet that far away for life, assuming it is not intelligent enough to broadcast signals outward?

A:

Are you guys familiar with MrBtongues videos? He made one comparing New Vegas and Fallout 3 and talking about how creating an interconnected world where thought is put into the economy and politics of the world, how people get food and so on, makes the experience so much richer than just having a world where cool setpieces feel kind of randomly stitched together. He made another video about how choice and consequences is done right in games. He often uses your games as positive examples and his thoughts about game development seems to align pretty well with your own design philosophies.

What are your thoughs on his videos if you have seen them?


Q:

Hi Judge! Thank you for embracing the media and public! I've got a few questions, so thank you for your patience :)

  1. What is the most memorable experience while doing your TV show?
  2. You have such a good heart bringing those kids to sit with you. Has any kid told you he or she wants to be a lawyer?
  3. What motivated you to go into law when you were younger?

Thank you again judge!

A:

Freddie, this character changed anything in you?


Q:

So if you get cancer again, its legit just bad ass luck.

A:

I am sure you have traveled to all types of famous places.

Do you have a favorite vacation spot?


Q:

What are the most promising ways to search a planet that far away for life, assuming it is not intelligent enough to broadcast signals outward?

A:

Are you guys familiar with MrBtongues videos? He made one comparing New Vegas and Fallout 3 and talking about how creating an interconnected world where thought is put into the economy and politics of the world, how people get food and so on, makes the experience so much richer than just having a world where cool setpieces feel kind of randomly stitched together. He made another video about how choice and consequences is done right in games. He often uses your games as positive examples and his thoughts about game development seems to align pretty well with your own design philosophies.

What are your thoughs on his videos if you have seen them?


Q:

Right now neurology estimates 2 weeks.

A:

Thanks!


Q:

We will look at the atmosphere for gases that do not belong--gases that might be attributed to life. We will not know if the gases are produced by microbial life or by intelligent alien species. --SS

A:

I have seen those videos and think they're very interesting, and that's all I'm gonna say about that.


Q:

Thank you for your questions!

1) There are too many to list.

2) I had one young lady indicate that she wants to be a judge, and I explained to her that she had to become an attorney first. Other than that, one instance, surprisingly I have not had more children respond as favorable to the law. However, I hope that I have inspired some younger people to enter the legal profession. I don't think I was as persuasive as my father was.

3) My dad was an immigrant from Italy, who came here as a fruit peddler, and like so many others had a hope and a vision that life would be substantially better for his children than it was for him. He told me at an early age, around 7, that I was such a fast talker that I had to be a lawyer and that I could not charge poor people like us. He also told me he couldn't afford to send me to college, but that I had no choice but to find a way to go. I never forgot that, and I never aspired to be anything else in life other than an attorney because of my father's influence. I worked three jobs to put myself through college. After college, I could not afford to go to law school so I taught school in Providence, and drove the 15 miles to Boston to attend law school in the evenings at Suffolk University. To this day, I have never charged poor people.

A:

It has awakened my darker side... I don't think so. I certainly changed since I've been doing Bates Motel, I was 19...and I just turned 25. There are huge events that happen in life that change you. And, the experience that Bates has had...but, it's hard to pinpoint any Norman traits that I've taken on my self and that's probably not recommended.


Q:

Yeah, that or shitty genes. Cancer is rampant on my mother's side of the family.

My dad's side is all fine tho, so I'm hoping the first bout of cancer was the cruddy genes and the rest of my life will be dictated by the good ones.

This is completely unrealistic and impossible but hey, a gal can dream.

A:

Australia is particularly nice. It is summer there when it is winter here so going there in December and January is especially nice. I spent Thanksgiving there last year.

I have gotten to travel to a lot of great places like the Amazon in Brazil which I recommend.


Q:

We will look at the atmosphere for gases that do not belong--gases that might be attributed to life. We will not know if the gases are produced by microbial life or by intelligent alien species. --SS

A:

I have seen those videos and think they're very interesting, and that's all I'm gonna say about that.


Q:

do you believe it was god/divine intervention that saved you or sheer luck ?

A:

Ok, Mr. Gates, what's a typical Bill sandwich consist of? I'm talking breads, meats, cheeses, condiments. if you could only have one sandwich on earth, what would it be?


Q:

Literally just signed up to ask this question because I think it's interesting to think about. I also asked on Twitter, and I'm nothing if not repetitive and persistent and redundant.

In order to give context for the laypeople out there: if we had the same intelligence & instruments, what would we know about Earth if we looked from a TRAPPIST exoplanet?

EDIT: Wow, thanks to everyone for the lovely comments and to /u/Mr_Sassypants for the gold! I don't know what it does, but I do appreciate it! Is everyone's first day on Reddit this welcoming?

A:

apologies if I've written this twice, new to Reddit .

Will we have Pirate sound tracks with the crew singing like on assassin's creed black flag?

Druken salior!


Q:

Last question your Honor, growing up with not a lot of money, did any of your friends take the wrong path? Did you ever see what became of them if so?

A:

Freddie,

What do you think it is that makes Norman often so irresistible to women throughout the seasons of Bates Motel?


Q:

I'm sorry, this isn't really a question, just me being baffled. Your family has a cancer history and your doctor still didn't take you seriously? That should be enough reason to get at least some testing done.

But I'm glad you're okay, and you're an amazing writer. I'd love to buy your book when you get around to writing it.

A:

What do you think is the most pressing issue that we could feasibly solve in the next ten years?


Q:

Literally just signed up to ask this question because I think it's interesting to think about. I also asked on Twitter, and I'm nothing if not repetitive and persistent and redundant.

In order to give context for the laypeople out there: if we had the same intelligence & instruments, what would we know about Earth if we looked from a TRAPPIST exoplanet?

EDIT: Wow, thanks to everyone for the lovely comments and to /u/Mr_Sassypants for the gold! I don't know what it does, but I do appreciate it! Is everyone's first day on Reddit this welcoming?

A:

apologies if I've written this twice, new to Reddit .

Will we have Pirate sound tracks with the crew singing like on assassin's creed black flag?

Druken salior!


Q:

I had about a 2 second heads up pre crash so i went did what i thought would help save me. Go limp like most drunk drivers do and kinda bend into a ball. For the most part that about saved my life.

A:

Cheeseburger, Cheeseburger, Cheeseburger.


Q:

The next generation of space telescopes, after WFIRST and JWST, to be launched in the 2030's. would be capable of actually getting a spectrum of the Earth, separate from the sun, using an instrument called a coronagraph or a star shade. The current telescopes could measure the size of the Earth as it transits in front of the sun. However, that only happens only once per year, so you have to know when to look, or look for a long time. The latter strategy was adopted by the original Kepler Mission. Michael Werner

A:

I don't believe Justin Bell, our composer, has any sea chanties planned -- but you never know. I will suggest it to him, as I actually think it's a great idea! Then again, what do I know, I clean toilets for a living.


Q:

Unfortunately, some of the young men from my neighborhood took a wrong path in life. It's very sad because most of them came from caring, loving, families. Some of them have spent time in prison.

A:

A. He's really cute. B. He sees them. The women who have been drawn to him, they're all kind of emotionally damaged, and I think that he feels like this quiet, safe place for them. They feel emotionally safe with him, which is ironic, because he kills peoeple. - K


Q:

Yeah, just not a history of Hodgkins. Breast, bowel, liver, skin and brain, but not Hodgkins. And all of the relatives were in their 40s-60s when they got it, so in a fucked up way I can see her reasoning.

If I could go back and speak up about my google findings, I would. It was unprofessional on her part and unfortunate on mine. But oh well!

Thank you so much! This AMA has definitely given me the kick I needed to start. I was very apprehensive before as it's such a personal topic, but I think I'm ready.

A:

A lot of people feel a sense of isolation. I still wonder if digital tools can help people find opportunities to get together with others - not Tinder but more like adults who want to mentor kids or hang out with each other. It is great that kids go off and pursue opportunities but when you get communities where the economy is weak and a lot of young people have left then something should be done to help.


Q:

The next generation of space telescopes, after WFIRST and JWST, to be launched in the 2030's. would be capable of actually getting a spectrum of the Earth, separate from the sun, using an instrument called a coronagraph or a star shade. The current telescopes could measure the size of the Earth as it transits in front of the sun. However, that only happens only once per year, so you have to know when to look, or look for a long time. The latter strategy was adopted by the original Kepler Mission. Michael Werner

A:

I don't believe Justin Bell, our composer, has any sea chanties planned -- but you never know. I will suggest it to him, as I actually think it's a great idea! Then again, what do I know, I clean toilets for a living.


Q:

My friend was just in an accident where her softball teammate died because a man ran a stop sign. Thankfully you're okay! Do you know when you'll be able to return to school? Have you figured out what you've forgotten (like have your parents told you anything "new," etc.)? Hope you make a speedy recovery!

A:

What are the limits of money when it comes to philanthropy?


Q:

If life is discovered on any of these exoplanets, How long would it probably take from time of discovery to an actual announcement to the public? Would that time differ depending on the types of life found? Would it take longer to disclose sentient beings than it would to disclose microbial life?

A:

Is there an Od Nua style megadungeon in PoE2?


Q:

Good Morning Your Honor, What is that one case you've presided over that you will never forget?

A:

Freddie - What was the hardest scene to shoot in season 4 ?


Q:

What advice would you give to relatives/people of those who have cancer?

A:

What are the limits of money when it comes to philanthropy?


Q:

If life is discovered on any of these exoplanets, How long would it probably take from time of discovery to an actual announcement to the public? Would that time differ depending on the types of life found? Would it take longer to disclose sentient beings than it would to disclose microbial life?

A:

Is there an Od Nua style megadungeon in PoE2?


Q:

Earliest i could be back to school for most likely only a few hours a day is march 10th. Memory wise alot of people have told me stuff but i don't recollect much if any.

A:

Philanthropy is small as a part of the overall economy so it can't do things like fund health care or education for everyone. Government and the private sector are the big players so philanthropy has to be more innovative and fund pilot programs to help the other sectors. A good example is funding new medicines or charter schools where non-obvious approaches might provide the best solution.

One thing that is a challenge for our Foundation is that poor countries often have weak governance - small budgets, and the people in the ministries don't have much training. This makes it harder to get things done.

If we had more money we could do more good things - even though we are the biggest foundation we are still resource limited.

Edit: We discuss this in our annual letter this year: www.gatesletter.com


Q:

That is a great question and something that has been thought about a lot by many different organizations. There is a great article on this by SETI scientist Dr Duncan Forgan https://arxiv.org/abs/1605.02947 which looks at many different scenarios in the age of 24 hour news and social media - HW

A:

Not this time, we decided to add a bunch of islands that Fulvano the explorer can discover, instead. It makes for a more varied adventuring experience.


Q:

The case of Ricky Baldwin, who continued to yell "Double Jeopardy", when asked about previous offenses and then threatened to kill me.

A:

The hardest scene in season 4 for me was when Norma died. It was so hard but I got violently ill and couldn't go to set- I'm CONVINCED its because I couldn't stand to go see it- K

I think some of the bigger moments with Dr. Edwards were challenging. For episode 10 Kerry and I chatted for a while about that one and tracked Norman through the entire episode to make sure everything lined up. It was an internal episode for Norman. - F


Q:

During treatment: don't smother them. They're the same person, they just happen to have a tumour. Nothing else has changed. If they need help then they will ask. Trust them to make their own decisions, including on support groups, treatment courses etc. Trying to dictate everything feels like you're taking away the last bit of freedom cancer left behind.

Try to keep them busy. Idle hands are the Devil's work, and so is an idle mind IMO. Chemo is boring, staying at home all day is boring, being sick is boring. Get them Netflix and nice blankets, puzzle books, video games, whatever it is that'll give them something to look forward to on the nights where they can't sleep. There'll be plenty.

If they need to scream/cry/rant, let them. Don't try to soothe them if they're having a rage about cancer - it's therapeutic, and no one will ever understand it exactly like they do.

Always, always ALWAYS visit them in the hospital if they're in for a long-term stay. My town was 40 mins from the hospital and I spent so long wishing more people would visit. :(

Post-treatment: don't expect the world. Let them take their time. If they say they're not up for drinks at the bar etc., don't be mad because "hey, they beat cancer months ago, they're fine!" That's not cool.

If you think they might be depressed, encourage them to see a professional. Mental health post-cancer can really take a nosedive if it's not taken care of properly.

And most importantly, don't take any of it personally. If the person was snippy/upset one day, demand an apology because they're being an asshole and then brush it off.

PS: Don't forget to take care of yourself either! It's hard having a relative or loved one who's going through this. My mother struggled a lot when I was sick and it hurt me to see her in pain. Self-love, seeing a support group or a therapist, and taking care of your own needs is v v v important. :)

A:

Philanthropy is small as a part of the overall economy so it can't do things like fund health care or education for everyone. Government and the private sector are the big players so philanthropy has to be more innovative and fund pilot programs to help the other sectors. A good example is funding new medicines or charter schools where non-obvious approaches might provide the best solution.

One thing that is a challenge for our Foundation is that poor countries often have weak governance - small budgets, and the people in the ministries don't have much training. This makes it harder to get things done.

If we had more money we could do more good things - even though we are the biggest foundation we are still resource limited.

Edit: We discuss this in our annual letter this year: www.gatesletter.com


Q:

That is a great question and something that has been thought about a lot by many different organizations. There is a great article on this by SETI scientist Dr Duncan Forgan https://arxiv.org/abs/1605.02947 which looks at many different scenarios in the age of 24 hour news and social media - HW

A:

Not this time, we decided to add a bunch of islands that Fulvano the explorer can discover, instead. It makes for a more varied adventuring experience.


Q:

In your talk at Columbia University last month, you and Warren Buffet both emphasized the importance of “curiosity” as a personal quality.

Do you believe curiosity is a trait that is naturally inherited or a trait that can be cultivated and strengthened? If the latter, what methods would you recommend for people to develop and stimulate their own curiosity?

A:

Hello, and congratulations and thank you for this discovery! You people are doing amazing work. I have 2 questions for you.

  1. Do we know what kind of a gravity compared to Earth or Mars appears on those 3 planets that could have water in them?

  2. Can we expect to have the technology in the next 20-30 years that we could for see for sure that there would be life in those planets in form of vegetation?


Q:

Have you or your brother ever considered writing something about how to implement a similar series through other courts? If my local court did communication like your show, I'd probably find them more easy to appoach.

A:

Freddie, what was your experience working with Rihanna like? Love you, Freddie!


Q:

Did you watch Breaking Bad, and if so, what did you think of it?

A:

Where do you see yourself in 15 years?


Q:

Hello, and congratulations and thank you for this discovery! You people are doing amazing work. I have 2 questions for you.

  1. Do we know what kind of a gravity compared to Earth or Mars appears on those 3 planets that could have water in them?

  2. Can we expect to have the technology in the next 20-30 years that we could for see for sure that there would be life in those planets in form of vegetation?

A:

Good question. I think having parents and teachers reinforce your curiosity and explain what they are fascinated with makes a big difference. A lot of people lose their curiosity as they get older which is a shame. One thing that helps nowadays is that if you get confused about something it is easier than ever to find an article or video to make things clear.


Q:

To answer your second question, in order to see vegetation and any other surface features (e.g. oceans, continents), we’ll need future telescopes beyond JWST that will be able to directly image exoplanets. JWST will observe planets transiting their host stars. Transits are when the planet passes between us and its star, and from these transits, we can observe how gases in the planet’s atmosphere interact with starlight passing through the atmosphere. Unfortunately, this technique doesn’t allow us to see the surfaces of exoplanets. To do that, we’ll need farther future technology that may become available in the coming decades that will allow us to block out the star’s light and observe the planets directly. Examples of these technologies are starlight suppression tools called coronagraphs and starshades. The planets we observe directly with these starlight suppression techniques will not be spatially resolved: they will literally be single points of light, but don’t despair because we can still learn a lot from single points of light! By analyzing the spectrum of colors in these points of light, we can search for signs of interesting gases (like water vapor and gases produced by life called biosignatures), and we can look for temporal changes in the light caused by processes like planetary rotation and seasonal variations. However, the TRAPPIST-1 planets, being so close to their host star, would likely be tricky to directly observe in this way. These starlight suppression technologies fail once you get too close to the star, and so these types of observations would be extremely difficult. Other planetary systems orbiting hotter stars may be detectable with these technologies, though! And on them, we’d be able to search for things like vegetation and other interesting signs of habitability and life. –G.A.

A:

That is not part of our future plans.


Q:

Oh she was wonderful. It's hard to say too much without giving away what she gets up to in Bates Motel...but she was incredibly engaged, professional and always gave absolutely everything. She threw herself into the role and made her Marion Crane unique and special with arcs back to the original performance in Psycho, but she made the character her own.

A:

I flat-out refused to watch it when I was ill because of the cancer storyline.

I started it last year and finished it about three weeks ago. I loved every minute of it and I'm sorry I didn't watch it when I was sick. Heisenberg was a bad-ass and I could have learned a lot from him, attitude-wise.


Q:

I will be 76 at that time. Hopefully a grandfather. The Foundation with its partners will have eradicated a number of diseases and health in poor countries will be a lot better - specifically instead of 5% of children under 5 dying it should be at 2.5% which is still a lot.

I hope I can still type fast enough to do Reddit sessions without someone transcribing for me.

A:

To answer your second question, in order to see vegetation and any other surface features (e.g. oceans, continents), we’ll need future telescopes beyond JWST that will be able to directly image exoplanets. JWST will observe planets transiting their host stars. Transits are when the planet passes between us and its star, and from these transits, we can observe how gases in the planet’s atmosphere interact with starlight passing through the atmosphere. Unfortunately, this technique doesn’t allow us to see the surfaces of exoplanets. To do that, we’ll need farther future technology that may become available in the coming decades that will allow us to block out the star’s light and observe the planets directly. Examples of these technologies are starlight suppression tools called coronagraphs and starshades. The planets we observe directly with these starlight suppression techniques will not be spatially resolved: they will literally be single points of light, but don’t despair because we can still learn a lot from single points of light! By analyzing the spectrum of colors in these points of light, we can search for signs of interesting gases (like water vapor and gases produced by life called biosignatures), and we can look for temporal changes in the light caused by processes like planetary rotation and seasonal variations. However, the TRAPPIST-1 planets, being so close to their host star, would likely be tricky to directly observe in this way. These starlight suppression technologies fail once you get too close to the star, and so these types of observations would be extremely difficult. Other planetary systems orbiting hotter stars may be detectable with these technologies, though! And on them, we’d be able to search for things like vegetation and other interesting signs of habitability and life. –G.A.


Q:

What are you most curious about, Bill?

A:

How long would it take with current technology to get to this solar system? Assuming it's a good few hundred years, what is the next step in finding out what's going on there?


Q:

How do you feel about the widespread use of plea-deals for defendants to quickly resolve small offenses, such as possession? Do you feel it forces innocent people to now have a criminal record to avoid court costs and longer sentences?

I love the work you're doing, thanks for doing this!

A:

Kerry! How was you knew Freddie will be perfect to be Norman Bates!!?(:


Q:

Storyteller and writer? Sounds good! Did you have a favourite author/genre?

A:

Ok, Mr. Gates, what's a typical Bill sandwich consist of? I'm talking breads, meats, cheeses, condiments. if you could only have one sandwich on earth, what would it be?


Q:

How long would it take with current technology to get to this solar system? Assuming it's a good few hundred years, what is the next step in finding out what's going on there?

A:

I still find the creation of life and the way the brain works the most fascinating areas. Nick Lane has some great books exploring what we know about how life started. It is amazing how little we know about the brain still but I expect we will know a lot more in 10 years.


Q:

No technology yet to get to this new planetary system. Fledgling efforts, however, are underway to consider how to send tiny spacecraft to the nearest star which has one known planet. https://breakthroughinitiatives.org/Initiative/3 SS

A:

It depends on the nature of the offense, and whether or not there is a valid defense to the charge.


Q:

Carlton and I skyped with Freddie- he was the first person we talked to and met with. We loved him. But we thought we can;t just hire the first person we meet with! So we looked some more and read with some more people and it became increasingly clear at every point that he WAS Norman. he has very unique qualities that fit this role so well and we are so blessed and lucky to get him to do it. It would not be the same show without him. - K

A:

Haha it makes for interesting work anyway!

I'll read anything. Literally any book you hand me I'll give it a flick through as long as it's not something ridiculous like Nazi sympathizing or automotive repair or some other really specific niche.

Lately its been fantasy series like ASOIAF, but I do love me some Stephen King. Goddamn that man can write a creepy book.

In terms of poetry, it's a tie between Sylvia Plath and Charles Bukowski. Cliche, but I love them both. I've also been feeling some Rumi lately, and Jim Morrison's poetry is a trip from start to end.

After I get over my fantasy obsession I have a stack of classics I want to get through. I don't like being an Irish writer who's never read Ulysses.


Q:

Cheeseburger, Cheeseburger, Cheeseburger.

A:

No technology yet to get to this new planetary system. Fledgling efforts, however, are underway to consider how to send tiny spacecraft to the nearest star which has one known planet. https://breakthroughinitiatives.org/Initiative/3 SS


Q:

I am sure you have traveled to all types of famous places.

Do you have a favorite vacation spot?

A:

So if we were to imagine earth as the planet closest to this star, how many of the other 6 planets would we have visited with satellites, rovers, manned orbits, manned landing, etc.?

I am trying to imagine how close they all are together in a way that is fun.


Q:

How do you feel about accents. Your rhodie accent is pretty distinct, so I'm wondering how you feel about other accents?

Thanks,

A:

Thank you all for doing this! Love the show and I can't wait to see what's next from you both!

Norma always makes Norman eggs, bacon, and biscuits for breakfast. What's your favorite breakfast food?


Q:

The only Nazi book I ever read was Mein Kampf... but just for a research :P

I much prefer novels than poetry. Classics are good... can I suggest you Il Decamerone by Boccaccio?

A:

If you could create a new IP and business with Elon Musk, what would you make happen?


Q:

So if we were to imagine earth as the planet closest to this star, how many of the other 6 planets would we have visited with satellites, rovers, manned orbits, manned landing, etc.?

I am trying to imagine how close they all are together in a way that is fun.

A:

Australia is particularly nice. It is summer there when it is winter here so going there in December and January is especially nice. I spent Thanksgiving there last year.

I have gotten to travel to a lot of great places like the Amazon in Brazil which I recommend.


Q:

Probably all of them! See this travel poster, artist's conception.https://exoplanets.nasa.gov/trappist1/#Poster SS

A:

I am a very tolerant person.


Q:

Tequila--KE

I'm enjoying bacon rolls back in England. It's like a bacon/sausage roll. Circular roll, bread roll, with ketchup. I like pancakes, scrambled eggs. Marmite. --FH

A:

I'd probably read it out of curiosity to be honest - but no other pro Nazi books hahaha

Really? I think poetry is good for a short, sharp burst of emotion. You can pick a collection up and put it down a thousand times over and you'll always get something different from it.

I'm always open for book recommendations! I've bookmarked it for later purchase. :)


Q:

We need clean, reliable cheap energy - which we don't have. It is too bad the sun doesn't shine all the time and the wind doesn't blow all the time. The Economist had a good piece on this this week. So we need some invention - perhaps miracle batteries or super safe nuclear or making sun into gasoline directly.

A:

Probably all of them! See this travel poster, artist's conception.https://exoplanets.nasa.gov/trappist1/#Poster SS


Q:

I have to know.. I saw what you got your secret Santa this year and it was amazing but what did YOU end up receiving?

Edit: Helpful Redditors answered my question below so thank you!! Follow up---- what did you think of it and what would you suggest to get you, if I were lucky enough to pull your name this year?

A:

What are the primary impacts of being an earth sized world so close to a smaller, dimmer star? From the perspective of a human on the surface of such a world, I mean.

I read that all are tidally locked to the star - does that mean they'd only have habitability bands around the perimeter/twilight region?


Q:

Hi Judge Caprio.

You seem to be interested in community development. Are there any community programs in Providence that you would like to give a shout ?

A:

Freddie, in your opinion, what is the best scene between Norma and Norman?


Q:

You said one of your goals is to travel lots. Where do you wish to travel or where have you already travelled?

A:

Hi Bill, what's the biggest 1st world problem you get?


Q:

What are the primary impacts of being an earth sized world so close to a smaller, dimmer star? From the perspective of a human on the surface of such a world, I mean.

I read that all are tidally locked to the star - does that mean they'd only have habitability bands around the perimeter/twilight region?

A:

A contribution to Rotary to help end polio is a gift I would appreciate. Also any great book you have read and found interesting.


Q:

Tidal-locking: we think as long as there is an atmosphere (even a thin atmosphere like that on Mars) heat will circulate around the planet. So habitability location should extend beyond the limbs.

A:

I'm a strong advocate of community development however, I would like to give a shout out to Adoption Rhode Island for the wonderful work they do.


Q:

I think there are so many. One of my favorites is when he talks about moving to hawaii and sing Pearly Shells, knowing in the back of his head htat he's going ot trun the gas on. It's creepy and heartbreaking at the same time. Writing that scene I was thinking about if you hjad a kid and you knew something terrible was happening the next dayand you had to fkill them for their own good how would you do that? He had to think about how to put her to sleep peacefully and was so well done by Freddie and Vera. - K

In the first episode of this season when Norman comes home and they're at the dining room table and you get this sense of where their relationship is at, I feel that all the stories we've had are written with such nuance and and are never long but are done so well and so fun to play with Vera. It's really sad (not to be down about it!) that we won't working in a scene like that again. - F

A:

Since recovering, I've been to Vienna and Budapest as well as places in Ireland that I never visited before.

My list is loooong. Top three currently are Venice, Bali and Machu Picchu. I'd like to do every major city in Western Europe, as well as a driving tour of Italy (my boyfriend and I are currently planning this one!)

I want to do the cliché cross-US roadtrip, and I'd like to do a historical tour of the world as well - concentration camps, catacombs and everything in-between. Asia, South America and Africa all have places on the list too.

If I get through a quarter of the list before I die then I'll be doing well.


Q:

I would say education is the key problem. If you can solve that then it helps with a lot of things.

Maybe I didn't understand the question - maybe it supposed to be some idiosyncratic thing that bothers me....

A:

Tidal-locking: we think as long as there is an atmosphere (even a thin atmosphere like that on Mars) heat will circulate around the planet. So habitability location should extend beyond the limbs.


Q:

Why do you think our healthcare systems have such a hard time leveraging the revolutionary changes in scalability that we've seen in software? Amazon is able to predict what we want, often before we realize we want it, but healthcare systems struggle to even schedule routine appointments and labs.

Having worked on both the healthcare and tech sides, I think people underestimate just how big the differences are between the two fields, but I have a hard time saying who needs to bend more for us to reach a happy compromise. Also, any idea on what we as concerned patients and family members can help to encourage this compromise? I just feel like we're so close to using technology to improve efficiency and thus increase accessibility to care.

Thanks for your time!

A:

Do we know the age of the system and planets?


Q:

Hello, what is usually the best route for a fellow to take, if he has been busted turning right on red without stopping, or caught going 55 in a 54, if he wants to receive clemency?

No disrespect intended, Sir. I am bringing examples of minor infractions where there were times when the judgement was strict at times, and lenient other times.

A:

Freddie & Kerry: If you could use one song to describe the show, what song would it be? I would choose Bohemian rhapsody lol


Q:

what 5 things would u try to experience if u could be the opposite sex for a day?

A:

Can you still jump over an office chair from a standing position?

Edit: Reference for those who need it.


Q:

Do we know the age of the system and planets?

A:

It is super important to improve our healthcare system - both to reduce chronic disease but if we don't do better health costs will squeeze out spending on all other government functions.

I agree it is surprising how tough it has been to get digital medical records right and to learn from looking at those records.

Still there are some very promising things going on. For example the idea of looking at a blood sample to find cancer very early so it can be treated. We will be able to use genomic data to tune treatments.

There are a few big problems like diabetes, obesity and neurological conditions including Alzheimer's that we really need to solve.


Q:

not precisely because such little stars evolve very veryvery slowly ! they live for hundreds of billions years compare to 10 billions for our own Sun... we can say that it is older than 500 million years, but it could be several billions years and even older than our own system (4,7 Gyear)

A:

The best route is to always tell the truth.


Q:

There have been so many great songs in the show. Mr Sandman. Dream Lover. You belong to me. --FH and KE

A:
  1. Masturbate
  2. Walk down a street alone at night without putting my keys between my knuckles as a weapon
  3. Do the dick helicopter bc why not
  4. Pee standing up without soaking my thighs
  5. Get a blowjob because they look fun

Q:

No. Perhaps a small chair - a stool. I do exercise and ski but my main sport is tennis which doesn't involve jumping. Some people jump over the net but that isn't part of the sport.

A:

not precisely because such little stars evolve very veryvery slowly ! they live for hundreds of billions years compare to 10 billions for our own Sun... we can say that it is older than 500 million years, but it could be several billions years and even older than our own system (4,7 Gyear)


Q:

Hi Bill, what's the biggest 1st world problem you get?

A:

What would be the temperatures on each of these planets and the most likely chemical compositions? Are they likely to have a magnetic field?


Q:

Good Morning your Honor,

Have you seen the series "OJ, Made in America"? And if so, how accurately was a real court room portrayed? Thanks!

A:

Freddie, Kerry & Mother: What was the best part about filming in Vancouver?


Q:

Conversely, what advantages (physically) do you see being a girl instead of a guy?

A:

I have to know.. I saw what you got your secret Santa this year and it was amazing but what did YOU end up receiving?

Edit: Helpful Redditors answered my question below so thank you!! Follow up---- what did you think of it and what would you suggest to get you, if I were lucky enough to pull your name this year?


Q:

What would be the temperatures on each of these planets and the most likely chemical compositions? Are they likely to have a magnetic field?

A:

I would say education is the key problem. If you can solve that then it helps with a lot of things.

Maybe I didn't understand the question - maybe it supposed to be some idiosyncratic thing that bothers me....


Q:

Surface temperatures depend on the proximity to the central star but also on the composition and thickness of the planet's atmosphere. Since we do not yet know anything about the planetary atmosphere's, all we can say is how much energy a planet is receiving from the star compared to how much energy Earth receives from the Sun. However, because this planetary system is so nearby, scientists should be able to characterize the atmospheres with future instruments and observatories. That's one reason why we're so excited about this discovery. - Natalie Batalha

A:

I have not seen that series.


Q:

I really love Vancouver. It's beautiful. The crew was amazing. Inspirational crew. People who came back year after year. Everybody came back every year. A collective belief in what we were doing. Really inspiring.

A:

Again, completely off-topic but I did say ask anything.

We get to play with our own boobs.

According to some guys a female orgasm is way more intense and complicated - I like the complication of it.

Also very hairy backs, faces and chests just seems like an awful effort. Shaving to the knee is an effort for me alone, can't imagine having to tackle my titties and my back too.

And penises just hang there, like do they not stick to your leg or flop around a lot? Everything we have is tucked away safely. Mother nature's pocket.


Q:

A contribution to Rotary to help end polio is a gift I would appreciate. Also any great book you have read and found interesting.

A:

Surface temperatures depend on the proximity to the central star but also on the composition and thickness of the planet's atmosphere. Since we do not yet know anything about the planetary atmosphere's, all we can say is how much energy a planet is receiving from the star compared to how much energy Earth receives from the Sun. However, because this planetary system is so nearby, scientists should be able to characterize the atmospheres with future instruments and observatories. That's one reason why we're so excited about this discovery. - Natalie Batalha


Q:

Where do you see yourself in 15 years?

A:

Any chance we could name these planets after the 7 dwarves?


Q:

What court case left you restless at night? Thank you :>

A:

How closely do you feel you have to follow the movie Psycho ?


Q:

would you try the bad stuff, like getting hit in the nuts or a boner in public?

A:

Hi Mr. Gates!

Thanks for doing this AMA! You are doing a lot of work eradicating diseases like Polio. In fact you've said that the diseases malaria and polio could be eradicated within the next 15 years, with polio gone as soon as 2019. I'd like to know which other deadly diseases that you think could be either 100% curable affordably or gone completely by 2050?

And one more thing, you have said previously that you think AI can pose a serious threleat to humanity. I'd like to ask, apart from a killswitch, which other precautionary measures we could take to ensure that AI behaves well and doesn't wipe us out?,

Thanks a lot Mr. Gates!


Q:

Any chance we could name these planets after the 7 dwarves?

A:

I will be 76 at that time. Hopefully a grandfather. The Foundation with its partners will have eradicated a number of diseases and health in poor countries will be a lot better - specifically instead of 5% of children under 5 dying it should be at 2.5% which is still a lot.

I hope I can still type fast enough to do Reddit sessions without someone transcribing for me.


Q:

That would be a lovely idea.. With the TRAPPIST team, we were more considering using names of the few trappist beers ;) !

J.d.W.

A:

I have on occasion thought on some of my decisions, and hoped that my judgement reflected a just disposition on the matter before me.


Q:

Carlton and I have always felt like we had to honor the material but not be beholden to it. To honor the essence of it and certain sensibilities but we didn't want to be bound to it. We wanted to create our own universe.--KE

A:

These questions are incredibly off topic even if they're making me giggle like a schoolgirl. But no, I would not try the bad stuff.

I only get 24 hours to play with my penis, I'm not gonna fuck that up with a kick to the sack.


Q:

One thing to make sure the people who create the first strong AI have the right values and ideally that it isn't just one group way out in front of others. I am glad to see this question being discussed. Google and others are taking it seriously.

A:

That would be a lovely idea.. With the TRAPPIST team, we were more considering using names of the few trappist beers ;) !

J.d.W.


Q:

Hi Mr. Gates!

Thanks for doing this AMA! You are doing a lot of work eradicating diseases like Polio. In fact you've said that the diseases malaria and polio could be eradicated within the next 15 years, with polio gone as soon as 2019. I'd like to know which other deadly diseases that you think could be either 100% curable affordably or gone completely by 2050?

And one more thing, you have said previously that you think AI can pose a serious threleat to humanity. I'd like to ask, apart from a killswitch, which other precautionary measures we could take to ensure that AI behaves well and doesn't wipe us out?,

Thanks a lot Mr. Gates!

A:

What information will you guys receive from these planets if the James Webb telescope is ready and functional?


Q:

Hello your Honor. What's the specific reason that your brother start the show?

A:

Kerry, in which scene did Romero really fall in love with Norma? Or was it love at first sight?


Q:

So your blood test results through out the year that you felt symptoms and were called a hypochondriac never showed any signs of something being wrong? Red blood cells/ white blood cells, etc?

A:

Why do you think our healthcare systems have such a hard time leveraging the revolutionary changes in scalability that we've seen in software? Amazon is able to predict what we want, often before we realize we want it, but healthcare systems struggle to even schedule routine appointments and labs.

Having worked on both the healthcare and tech sides, I think people underestimate just how big the differences are between the two fields, but I have a hard time saying who needs to bend more for us to reach a happy compromise. Also, any idea on what we as concerned patients and family members can help to encourage this compromise? I just feel like we're so close to using technology to improve efficiency and thus increase accessibility to care.

Thanks for your time!


Q:

What information will you guys receive from these planets if the James Webb telescope is ready and functional?

A:

One thing to make sure the people who create the first strong AI have the right values and ideally that it isn't just one group way out in front of others. I am glad to see this question being discussed. Google and others are taking it seriously.


Q:

NASA's upcoming James Webb Telescope, launching in 2018, will take over with a much higher sensitivity. It will be able to detect the chemical fingerprints of water, methane, oxygen, ozone, and other components of a planet's atmosphere. Farisa Morales

A:

My brother was filming the Mayor of Providence, and other events in the city, and my wife said to him "You film everyone else, why don't you film your brother(me)?". I resisted at first, because I didn't think that there would be an appetite for it. The first week it aired, it became very popular to my surprise.


Q:

Personally, I think he started to fall for her around episode 6 of the first season. When he went into his office later that season and tried to play ball with him on a criminal level and he slaps that down, at that point she already has a little pull on him. I think that's when they both allow themselves to see it. - K

A:

I was severely anemic and my vitamin D level dropped to 14, whereas a regular level is up around 70-75. I was dying and all she could do was tell me to get more exercise and hand me vitamins. My white blood cell count started to fluctuate too. But Hodgkins Lymphoma won't show up on any blood test, only scans, which I was never sent for despite asking.

I also had severe bowel issues at the time which she put down to IBS, and then tried to blame everything that was wrong with me on a bad diet.


Q:

It is super important to improve our healthcare system - both to reduce chronic disease but if we don't do better health costs will squeeze out spending on all other government functions.

I agree it is surprising how tough it has been to get digital medical records right and to learn from looking at those records.

Still there are some very promising things going on. For example the idea of looking at a blood sample to find cancer very early so it can be treated. We will be able to use genomic data to tune treatments.

There are a few big problems like diabetes, obesity and neurological conditions including Alzheimer's that we really need to solve.

A:

NASA's upcoming James Webb Telescope, launching in 2018, will take over with a much higher sensitivity. It will be able to detect the chemical fingerprints of water, methane, oxygen, ozone, and other components of a planet's atmosphere. Farisa Morales


Q:

Mr Gates!

Any thoughts on the current state of the U.S.?

A:

How is the habitable zone estimated for tidally locked planets? How does knowledge of this system affect theories of planetary formation?


Q:

Hello your Honor.

In your years on the bench what were some of the strangest cases that were brought before you?

A:

Dear Freddie,

Would you say the interactions between Norman and Norma are emotionally taxing for you? Especially in season 5, now that all of his interactions with Norma have this undercurrent of sadness to it, since it's all in his mind.


Q:

Mr Gates!

Any thoughts on the current state of the U.S.?

A:

How is the habitable zone estimated for tidally locked planets? How does knowledge of this system affect theories of planetary formation?


Q:

Overall like Warren Buffett I am optimistic about the long run. I am concerned in the short run that the huge benefits of how the US works with other countries may get lost. This includes the aid we give to Africa to help countries there get out of the poverty trap.

A:

The habitable zone is estimated based on the luminosity of the star and recognizing how far away can you be from it such that water can exist in it's liquid form on the surface of a terrestrial planet like the earth. Too close and the water evaporates; too far and the water freezes solid. Thus, the habitable zone is independent of whether the planets are tidally locked or not. Farisa Morales


Q:

One of the strangest cases you may have seen on our YouTube channel titled: "Hibernate Like A Squirrel". A gentleman was having a dispute with his neighbor over parking in his driveway, and as a result he hit his neighbor with a 5lb hammer.

A:

I think all bigger scenes (which there are lots in Bates Motel) are challenging. You put real emotions into them and in some ways acting should be seen as a form of therapy, it can be very cathartic. Like after a big cry, you feel better. I get to vent my anger in Bates Motel, and then in my real life I'm endlessly happy. I never stress about anything.


Q:

Overall like Warren Buffett I am optimistic about the long run. I am concerned in the short run that the huge benefits of how the US works with other countries may get lost. This includes the aid we give to Africa to help countries there get out of the poverty trap.

A:

The habitable zone is estimated based on the luminosity of the star and recognizing how far away can you be from it such that water can exist in it's liquid form on the surface of a terrestrial planet like the earth. Too close and the water evaporates; too far and the water freezes solid. Thus, the habitable zone is independent of whether the planets are tidally locked or not. Farisa Morales


Q:

Did you copy Steve Jobs or did he copy you?

A:

For the future of Exoplanet research, would it be more fruitful in your opinion to continue looking at different batches of stars for more planets, or would you rather we focus more closely on the planets that have already been found?


Q:

Good morning judge, a simple one here: what's your favorite color?

A:

Did you copy Steve Jobs or did he copy you?


Q:

For the future of Exoplanet research, would it be more fruitful in your opinion to continue looking at different batches of stars for more planets, or would you rather we focus more closely on the planets that have already been found?

A:

The main "copying" that went on relative to Steve and me is that we both benefited from the work that Xerox Parc did in creating graphical interface - it wasn't just them but they did the best work. Steve hired Bob Belville, I hired Charles Simonyi. We didn't violate any IP rights Xerox had but their work showed the way that led to the Mac and Windows.


Q:

Actually, we're going to do both! Certainly scientists will use tools like the Hubble Space Telescope and soon the James Webb Space Telescope (https://jwst.nasa.gov/) to study the planets that have already been discovered in an effort to learn more about them. At the same time, the Kepler/K2 mission (https://kepler.nasa.gov/) and soon the TESS mission (https://tess.gsfc.nasa.gov/) will continue the search for new planets, particularly those in our neighborhood of the galaxy. DMH

A:

Blue.


Q:

The main "copying" that went on relative to Steve and me is that we both benefited from the work that Xerox Parc did in creating graphical interface - it wasn't just them but they did the best work. Steve hired Bob Belville, I hired Charles Simonyi. We didn't violate any IP rights Xerox had but their work showed the way that led to the Mac and Windows.

A:

Actually, we're going to do both! Certainly scientists will use tools like the Hubble Space Telescope and soon the James Webb Space Telescope (https://jwst.nasa.gov/) to study the planets that have already been discovered in an effort to learn more about them. At the same time, the Kepler/K2 mission (https://kepler.nasa.gov/) and soon the TESS mission (https://tess.gsfc.nasa.gov/) will continue the search for new planets, particularly those in our neighborhood of the galaxy. DMH


Q:

Hi Bill,

I'm going to become a father this summer. Do you have any advice you wouldn't mind sharing, from one dad to a dad-to-be?

Thanks!

A:

Detecting exoplanets by their transit of their sun presumes that our angle of observation of their sun crosses the path of the planet's orbit. Isn't that really unlikely? Or, are all planets orbiting on parallel planes?


Q:

Good morning your Honor! What do you do to unwind after a hard day in court?

A:

Hi Bill,

I'm going to become a father this summer. Do you have any advice you wouldn't mind sharing, from one dad to a dad-to-be?

Thanks!


Q:

Detecting exoplanets by their transit of their sun presumes that our angle of observation of their sun crosses the path of the planet's orbit. Isn't that really unlikely? Or, are all planets orbiting on parallel planes?

A:

I just went on a trip with my 17 year old son to see 6 colleges. He is a junior in High School and trying to figure out where he should go. Trips like that have been a great way to spend time together. He reads even more about politics than I do so I let him pick books for me to read.

Melinda is very creative about helping me find chances to spend time with the kids. Even just driving them to school is a great time to talk to them.


Q:

You're correct! Using the transit technique, we can only find the planets passing in front of their star from our perspective. And as not all planets are on aligned plans, not all planets can be detected with this technique. Fortunately, other techniques exist to help us detect non-transiting planets (e.g., radial-velocity, direct-imaging, and astrometry techniques, among others). J.d.W.

A:

Good morning! My favorite ways to relax are to read a good book, watch a sporting event, or weather-permitting play golf.


Q:

I just went on a trip with my 17 year old son to see 6 colleges. He is a junior in High School and trying to figure out where he should go. Trips like that have been a great way to spend time together. He reads even more about politics than I do so I let him pick books for me to read.

Melinda is very creative about helping me find chances to spend time with the kids. Even just driving them to school is a great time to talk to them.

A:

You're correct! Using the transit technique, we can only find the planets passing in front of their star from our perspective. And as not all planets are on aligned plans, not all planets can be detected with this technique. Fortunately, other techniques exist to help us detect non-transiting planets (e.g., radial-velocity, direct-imaging, and astrometry techniques, among others). J.d.W.


Q:

What do you think about Universal Basic Income?

A:

Hello,

I have few questions :

1.Given that numerous earth sized planets have already been discovered, what makes Trappist-1 system discovery different? Will it alter the way exoplanets are searched?

2.From https://exoplanets.nasa.gov/the-search-for-life/life-signs/

Even without listening in on their conversations, the aliens’ reasonably advanced technology would be known to us by its pollution.

If the aliens are sufficiently advanced, that they have mastered pollution and don't pollute, how would one know the difference?

3.How would discovery of intelligent life, affect geopolitics? Miss universe and similar contests?

4.Lastly, how did planet 9 go undetected for so long?


Q:

Hi

Do you some times feel like the minor cases are wasting resources?

A:

What do you think about Universal Basic Income?


Q:

Hello,

I have few questions :

1.Given that numerous earth sized planets have already been discovered, what makes Trappist-1 system discovery different? Will it alter the way exoplanets are searched?

2.From https://exoplanets.nasa.gov/the-search-for-life/life-signs/

Even without listening in on their conversations, the aliens’ reasonably advanced technology would be known to us by its pollution.

If the aliens are sufficiently advanced, that they have mastered pollution and don't pollute, how would one know the difference?

3.How would discovery of intelligent life, affect geopolitics? Miss universe and similar contests?

4.Lastly, how did planet 9 go undetected for so long?

A:

Over time countries will be rich enough to do this. However we still have a lot of work that should be done - helping older people, helping kids with special needs, having more adults helping in education. Even the US isn't rich enough to allow people not to work. Some day we will be but until then things like the Earned Income Tax Credit will help increase the demand for labor.


Q:

Kepler taught us that temperate (i.e. Habitable Zone), terrestrial-sized planets are relatively common in the galaxy. The name of the game now is to find those near enough for atmospheric characterization. Of the few dozen Habitable Zone planets that have been detected to date, most are hundreds of light-years away whereas TRAPPIST-1 is just 40 light-years away. - Natalie Batalha

A:

No, everyone is entitled to his or her day in court regardless of how minor the offense is.


Q:

Over time countries will be rich enough to do this. However we still have a lot of work that should be done - helping older people, helping kids with special needs, having more adults helping in education. Even the US isn't rich enough to allow people not to work. Some day we will be but until then things like the Earned Income Tax Credit will help increase the demand for labor.

A:

Kepler taught us that temperate (i.e. Habitable Zone), terrestrial-sized planets are relatively common in the galaxy. The name of the game now is to find those near enough for atmospheric characterization. Of the few dozen Habitable Zone planets that have been detected to date, most are hundreds of light-years away whereas TRAPPIST-1 is just 40 light-years away. - Natalie Batalha


Q:

Hi Bill and thanks for doing this. I recently read 2017 annual letter in response to Warren Buffet on the impact of his donation (2006) to your foundation, and the world it serves, and I thought the information you highlighted was incredibly powerful and insightful. For those of us that cannot start our own foundation, or even if we could, how do you recommend finding a cause worth fighting for? Clearly your access to information and resources has allowed you to isolate some of the world's larger problems and find those folks who can actually make a difference. But where did you start? (For those who haven't seen it- https://www.gatesnotes.com/2017-Annual-Letter?WT.mc_id=02_14_2017_02_AL2017GFO_GF-GFO_&WT.tsrc=GFGFO)

Lastly, can I ask for your opinion on the status of the world refugee crisis. I've seen a lot of information on both sides of the fence, but I think I lean towards the belief that charity/donations need go into these communities and the folks that relocate are often the top thinkers/earners that could truly change their home country if they stayed. Here is a rather oversimplified video that summarizes the basis of my thoughts, I'd love to hear your view on all of this. (Poverty/refugee by numbers- https://youtu.be/LPjzfGChGlE)

Thanks again for taking the time. You truly are a visionary, role model, and hero without a cape to many of us worldwide.

Edit: formatting

A:

For the 9-12 year olds in my class, what space futures might these kids look forward to? What will we need from their generation of kids to make these space dreams possible in the future?


Q:

What is the most common type of case you have to decide on?

A:

Hi Bill and thanks for doing this. I recently read 2017 annual letter in response to Warren Buffet on the impact of his donation (2006) to your foundation, and the world it serves, and I thought the information you highlighted was incredibly powerful and insightful. For those of us that cannot start our own foundation, or even if we could, how do you recommend finding a cause worth fighting for? Clearly your access to information and resources has allowed you to isolate some of the world's larger problems and find those folks who can actually make a difference. But where did you start? (For those who haven't seen it- https://www.gatesnotes.com/2017-Annual-Letter?WT.mc_id=02_14_2017_02_AL2017GFO_GF-GFO_&WT.tsrc=GFGFO)

Lastly, can I ask for your opinion on the status of the world refugee crisis. I've seen a lot of information on both sides of the fence, but I think I lean towards the belief that charity/donations need go into these communities and the folks that relocate are often the top thinkers/earners that could truly change their home country if they stayed. Here is a rather oversimplified video that summarizes the basis of my thoughts, I'd love to hear your view on all of this. (Poverty/refugee by numbers- https://youtu.be/LPjzfGChGlE)

Thanks again for taking the time. You truly are a visionary, role model, and hero without a cape to many of us worldwide.

Edit: formatting


Q:

For the 9-12 year olds in my class, what space futures might these kids look forward to? What will we need from their generation of kids to make these space dreams possible in the future?

A:

There are so many ways to get involved - schools have mentorship and volunteering opportunities. Small gifts to things like Donors Choose have a big impact. I think most people start getting involved in local social service organizations. If you can travel to developing countries and see the needs there that is also great. It is great to start philanthropy when you are young.

In the long run the way to avoid refugee problems is to help countries develop by having good health, education and governance - fortunately the overall trend is good despite huge setbacks like Syria, South Sudan and Somalia. Unicef has a lot of good information about how to help with the current refugee challenges: http://uni.cf/2ltdjfr


Q:

It's an exciting time to be a kid, and to be an explorer! If students out there are interested in joining us here at NASA, taking as much math as possible is always good. That said, it's also important to study language arts, too, so that you can communicate your discoveries and innovations. In the meantime, check out the exoplanet travel posters for inspiration about worlds we might someday visit: https://exoplanets.nasa.gov/alien-worlds/exoplanet-travel-bureau/ -- Stephanie

A:

The cases that come before my court are mostly traffic offenses, environmental issues, and misdemeanors.


Q:

There are so many ways to get involved - schools have mentorship and volunteering opportunities. Small gifts to things like Donors Choose have a big impact. I think most people start getting involved in local social service organizations. If you can travel to developing countries and see the needs there that is also great. It is great to start philanthropy when you are young.

In the long run the way to avoid refugee problems is to help countries develop by having good health, education and governance - fortunately the overall trend is good despite huge setbacks like Syria, South Sudan and Somalia. Unicef has a lot of good information about how to help with the current refugee challenges: http://uni.cf/2ltdjfr

A:

It's an exciting time to be a kid, and to be an explorer! If students out there are interested in joining us here at NASA, taking as much math as possible is always good. That said, it's also important to study language arts, too, so that you can communicate your discoveries and innovations. In the meantime, check out the exoplanet travel posters for inspiration about worlds we might someday visit: https://exoplanets.nasa.gov/alien-worlds/exoplanet-travel-bureau/ -- Stephanie


Q:

Bill, big fan but I've got a question and I need you to formally settle it.

Is a hot dog a sandwich?

A:

How long have NASA known about the discovery?


Q:

Hitting someone with a 5lb hammer falls under that?

A:

Bill, big fan but I've got a question and I need you to formally settle it.

Is a hot dog a sandwich?


Q:

How long have NASA known about the discovery?

A:

Good question. If you don't have a bun then it absolutely is not. If you slice the hot dog and put it on a normal piece of bread (like Burgermaster) then it is. When you use a hot dog bun then it is ambiguous.


Q:

What is really important about these types of discoveries is that they are checked by other scientists and confirmed external to the original team this is called the peer review process and has to occur before any scientific work is made public, to make sure we are giving the best information available -HW

A:

He was before my court for the parking violation, not the assault. If you watch the case, titled: "Hibernate Like A Squirrel" he was explaining to me why he was going to Superior Court.


Q:

Good question. If you don't have a bun then it absolutely is not. If you slice the hot dog and put it on a normal piece of bread (like Burgermaster) then it is. When you use a hot dog bun then it is ambiguous.

A:

What is really important about these types of discoveries is that they are checked by other scientists and confirmed external to the original team this is called the peer review process and has to occur before any scientific work is made public, to make sure we are giving the best information available -HW


Q:

STEM, or STEAM?

A:

How can a young aspiring astronomer like myself get involved in this kind of work? At my university it seems like undergrads get funneled directly into academia. What does it take to work at an institution like NASA? I've already started getting involved in research as a sophomore, and my dream research topic is exoplanets.


Q:

What tips do you have for winning elections?

A:

STEM, or STEAM?


Q:

How can a young aspiring astronomer like myself get involved in this kind of work? At my university it seems like undergrads get funneled directly into academia. What does it take to work at an institution like NASA? I've already started getting involved in research as a sophomore, and my dream research topic is exoplanets.

A:

I am not sure if Steam here means the gaming platform or adding Arts to Science, Technology, Engineering and Math. I have always been a big STEM fan but I have nothing against either STEAM.


Q:

There are many possibilities. You can log into the NASA Planet Quest site and see tools and data bases about the planets as they are discovered. Try logging into "Eyes on Exoplanets". JPL, Goddard, and other NASA centers have summer internships and lots going on in the world of exoplanets; this would be a good way for you to get some firsthand experience. Most NASA scientists like myself have PhDs but have chosen to work for NASA rather than in universities. You could start in a PhD program...possibly doing your research in direct conjunction with NASA, or working for a professor like Sara Seager who does lots of NASA-funded work on exoplanets. Following that, try for a postdoctoral position at a NASA center; many good postdocs go on to become regular NASA employees. I appreciate your interest! Michael Werner

A:

Personal contact with the voters, and being honest, forthright, and transparent.


Q:

I am not sure if Steam here means the gaming platform or adding Arts to Science, Technology, Engineering and Math. I have always been a big STEM fan but I have nothing against either STEAM.

A:

There are many possibilities. You can log into the NASA Planet Quest site and see tools and data bases about the planets as they are discovered. Try logging into "Eyes on Exoplanets". JPL, Goddard, and other NASA centers have summer internships and lots going on in the world of exoplanets; this would be a good way for you to get some firsthand experience. Most NASA scientists like myself have PhDs but have chosen to work for NASA rather than in universities. You could start in a PhD program...possibly doing your research in direct conjunction with NASA, or working for a professor like Sara Seager who does lots of NASA-funded work on exoplanets. Following that, try for a postdoctoral position at a NASA center; many good postdocs go on to become regular NASA employees. I appreciate your interest! Michael Werner


Q:

Hi, and congrats on the amazing discovery! Although I'm aware we can't see the Trappist-1 star, where in the night sky would it be if we could see it?

A:

I've been really enjoying your videos and its very refreshing to see a judge with an excellent sense of humor and common decency. Generally I do believe you are doing a fantastic job as a judge, however, recently there was a case I did disagree with and I would just like to hear a little of your input provided you have the time. Now, I am fully aware that you don't necessarily put the fines in place in regards to minimum/maximum, but you definitely do hold some power over adjusting the final amount paid, pay length, etc.. Red light violations typically carry a charge of $85 in Providence, running a red is a serious problem which can certainly end up in something disastrous. For the consequences which may come from running a red, I really don't feel the $85 is enough even for first time offenders (if they are flat-out guilty), but that's really just my opinion. My question is in regards to a young man you had on not too long ago who was fined $100 for playing loud music at noon. Why, as a judge that has been very fair and compassionate to his fellow man, did you see a $100 charge for a "crime" which has no victims as fair, but regularly (at least what is shown from the videos) reduce charges on more serious violations that have potential to hurt people? Thanks so much for your time and have a great day Judge Caprio!


Q:

Hey, Mr. Gates! Was there any book that helped you through your career?

A:

Hi, and congrats on the amazing discovery! Although I'm aware we can't see the Trappist-1 star, where in the night sky would it be if we could see it?


Q:

Aquarius is visible in the night sky in October. There's a nice graphic at the link below showing the position of the star in the constellation. Scroll down to the bottom of this page. Keep in mind that his particular star is too faint to be seen with the unaided eye. http://www.trappist.one/#about - Natalie Batalha, Kepler Project Scientist

A:

Loud music is an environmental offense which is a civil penalty and not a crime. The original fine for the offense you mentioned was $500 and I reduced it to $100.


Q:

I have recommended a book called Business Adventures that chronicles some big successes and failures - I learned a lot from that.

A:

Aquarius is visible in the night sky in October. There's a nice graphic at the link below showing the position of the star in the constellation. Scroll down to the bottom of this page. Keep in mind that his particular star is too faint to be seen with the unaided eye. http://www.trappist.one/#about - Natalie Batalha, Kepler Project Scientist


Q:

Where can i find a video of this announcement? Seriously I can't find a video.

A:

Where can i find a video of this announcement? Seriously I can't find a video.


Q:

Hi, you can see a replay of the news conference here: http://www.ustream.tv/recorded/100200725 -ERL

A:

Hi, you can see a replay of the news conference here: http://www.ustream.tv/recorded/100200725 -ERL


Q:

Which one of the new discoveries is the one your team is most excited about?

A:

Which one of the new discoveries is the one your team is most excited about?


Q:

The 3 planets e, f and g are the so called habitable zone and are the best candidates to harbor liquid water and... maybe... life !

A:

The 3 planets e, f and g are the so called habitable zone and are the best candidates to harbor liquid water and... maybe... life !


Q:

Hello from Liège :D

My question is about the host star. I read that red dwarf stars are likely to eject a lot of solar particles therefore the habitability of planets around this kind of stars is less. What about trappist-1 ?

A:

Hello from Liège :D

My question is about the host star. I read that red dwarf stars are likely to eject a lot of solar particles therefore the habitability of planets around this kind of stars is less. What about trappist-1 ?


Q:

The stellar winds of ultracool dwarf stars like TRAPPIST-1 are significantly fainter than for more massive red dwarfs, because their atmospheres is cooler and thus less charged. Still, habitable conditions on the planets require them to have magnetic fields to protect the atmospheres from these stellar winds. We don't know if they have. If we detect dense atmospheres, this will make planetary magnetospheres very likely.

A:

The stellar winds of ultracool dwarf stars like TRAPPIST-1 are significantly fainter than for more massive red dwarfs, because their atmospheres is cooler and thus less charged. Still, habitable conditions on the planets require them to have magnetic fields to protect the atmospheres from these stellar winds. We don't know if they have. If we detect dense atmospheres, this will make planetary magnetospheres very likely.


Q:

In the presentation, one of the someone said that Spitzer was not originally designed to look for exoplanets and that it had to be re-engineered to do so. Assuming that the telescope stayed in space, how was this done?

A:

In the presentation, one of the someone said that Spitzer was not originally designed to look for exoplanets and that it had to be re-engineered to do so. Assuming that the telescope stayed in space, how was this done?


Q:

Observations such as those described today require precision much higher than 1%. At this level, we discovered in the initial data on exoplanets various "systematic effects" having to do with both the telescope and the instrument which made it difficult to achieve this level of performance. So the re-engineering really meant using the telescope and analyzing the data in new and different ways; this continues as we strive to achieve higher and higher precision. - M. Werner see spitzer.caltech.edu for more information.

A:

Observations such as those described today require precision much higher than 1%. At this level, we discovered in the initial data on exoplanets various "systematic effects" having to do with both the telescope and the instrument which made it difficult to achieve this level of performance. So the re-engineering really meant using the telescope and analyzing the data in new and different ways; this continues as we strive to achieve higher and higher precision. - M. Werner see spitzer.caltech.edu for more information.


Q:

When the JWST is launched, how will it be used to analyze this system? What will it be looking for, and what will it be able to tell us about these planets?

A:

When the JWST is launched, how will it be used to analyze this system? What will it be looking for, and what will it be able to tell us about these planets?


Q:

We’ll want to search for signs of interesting gases in the atmospheres of these planets with JWST. A high priority gas we of course want to detect is water vapor since water is necessary for life as we know it and is a fundamental part of our definition of planetary habitability. We will need to stare at these targets for a long time with JWST to be able to collect sufficient signal from them for a chance at determining their atmospheric compositions. During transit events (when the planets pass in front of their star), gases in the planets’ atmospheres can absorb starlight, producing potentially detectable signals. These will be very difficult observations, however, and obtaining better constraints on these planets’ properties beforehand (e.g. their masses) can help disentangle the signals we obtain with JWST in the future. -G.A.

A:

We’ll want to search for signs of interesting gases in the atmospheres of these planets with JWST. A high priority gas we of course want to detect is water vapor since water is necessary for life as we know it and is a fundamental part of our definition of planetary habitability. We will need to stare at these targets for a long time with JWST to be able to collect sufficient signal from them for a chance at determining their atmospheric compositions. During transit events (when the planets pass in front of their star), gases in the planets’ atmospheres can absorb starlight, producing potentially detectable signals. These will be very difficult observations, however, and obtaining better constraints on these planets’ properties beforehand (e.g. their masses) can help disentangle the signals we obtain with JWST in the future. -G.A.


Q:

Why does the lettering start at 'b'? What happened to planet 'a'? Thanks!

A:

Why does the lettering start at 'b'? What happened to planet 'a'? Thanks!


Q:

"a" is for the star main star. We start naming companions with "b" if it is a planet, with "B" if it is another star. J.d.W.

A:

"a" is for the star main star. We start naming companions with "b" if it is a planet, with "B" if it is another star. J.d.W.


Q:

How can you know that existing life are in need of liquid water? We don't know anything about extraterrestrial life, do we? Just because we breathe oxygen and are dependent on water, does that mean that all other potential life have the same criteria?

A:

How can you know that existing life are in need of liquid water? We don't know anything about extraterrestrial life, do we? Just because we breathe oxygen and are dependent on water, does that mean that all other potential life have the same criteria?


Q:

Very true! We have a very Earth-centric perspective on Life and habitability. But this is the beauty of exoplanetary science. We are exploring other worlds, finding unexpected planet types (e.g., hot-Jupiter, super-Earths), planets around completely different types of stars. All this is helping us broadening our perspective on planetary systems, which was based on a century-long study of our own system. Now, let's hope exoplanetary science will provide us with a similar perspective shift on habitability and Life--in the Universe! J.d.W.

A:

Very true! We have a very Earth-centric perspective on Life and habitability. But this is the beauty of exoplanetary science. We are exploring other worlds, finding unexpected planet types (e.g., hot-Jupiter, super-Earths), planets around completely different types of stars. All this is helping us broadening our perspective on planetary systems, which was based on a century-long study of our own system. Now, let's hope exoplanetary science will provide us with a similar perspective shift on habitability and Life--in the Universe! J.d.W.