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ScienceAstronomer here! AMAA!

Nov 6th 2017 by Andromeda321 • 15 Questions • 4192 Points

Hi everyone! I work at a retirement home/demantia and due to there being prohibit rules workers aren't allowed to speak about whats going on and people will always ask me a lot of questions about my work so Here I am! I will of course still follow this prohibited to talk rule by not speaking in details about the individuals or places or who I am but I will still answer questions about the work. Atm I work on night shifts and it is pretty quiet so I was thinking I could spend the night answering your questions. So fire away!

https://imgur.com/a/gmqcX

(EDIT:) Reading your stories and other caretakers experiences warms really makes me smile! I had no idea that this AMA would get this kind of exposure

(EDIT EDIT:) I think some my comments got deleted or I just forgot to save them so RIP. I wanted to make sure that I read every question thoroughly. So back at it again.

(EDIT 3X:) I will go to bed. Im pretty tired at the moment. I will look through the comments when I wake up and answer some more and then I'm gonna close the AMA. Im really happy that I could help out some of you and give you some clarity. Take care!

(EDIT 4X:) Alright im gonna end it here. I have had so much fun reading your stories and answering your questions. Never thought this would be such a huge AMA. Take care everyone and I wish you guys all the best! <3

Q:

I have an 8 year old daughter who is fascinated with everything space related, I encourage her in anything that keeps her curious and I suspect that a telescope may be under the Christmas tree this year.

What should I look for? Reflector vs. refractor, dimensions, focal length, etc?

A:

Has anyone ever recognized their (or their great-granddad's) invention that was used in Creepy IP?


Q:

Is sexual harassment a widespread problem in our society? Or is it just in a few industries? And what is the largest barriers to these crimes being reported and the perpetrators being prosecuted?

A:

What was the scariest thing you heard or saw or experienced being undercover with them?


Q:

What are some fruit-bearing (or otherwise commonly eaten) plants that share the closest ideal conditions (and similar cycles) for growing as marijuana?

A:

What's your opinion of journalists after your personal experience? Was there any good for you that came from them and their reports, did you see some/many as exploitative?


Q:

What was the worst thing you had to endure while filming Idiot Abroad?

A:

I have 2 questions really that if you could answer would be amazing!

1 - What’s the best way to deal with their confusion?

2 - Is there any other advice you can give to someone trying to support a relative who has it? How to calm them or reassure them?? We’re trying our best but it’s such a unique illness and we just want the best for them

Thank you


Q:

I think the type doesn't matter as much as having a good, solid mount that won't wobble the second you accidentally touch something, like most "for kids" telescopes unfortunately do. So frustrating!

I always recommend people who buy a telescope also get a copy of Turn Left at Orion. It's a great book to tell you how to find stuff in the sky with a small telescope, including pictures of what things will actually look like!

A:

Laura: No one on social media has told us they’ve recognized a family members’ patents during #CreepyIP yet. But among the staff, most of us will admit to doing a quick search of the archives to see if any of our relatives are listed there. Anyone can search them -- you can search by the inventors first and last name, and limit by date, so that’s one way to find out if “Uncle So-and-So who had a patent” actually did, and what the patent claimed to do.

In my office I have several copies of patents issued to my husband’s maternal grandfather. He worked for DuPont on fiber technology/science. He also invented something he called the “wrinkle-o-matic”, which was a device to scientifically measure how much natural fabrics wrinkled versus some of the new “wonder” fabrics of the time, like polyester!

Sometimes you also find weird things, like this hairdressing patent by “L.Larrimore” [Note: not me and not related to me] which are just neat. I printed out a copy and have it taped to my office door, next to my nameplate.


Q:

This is Amanda Farahany. Sexual harassment is still a widespread problem in our society. Unfortunately, however, these are considered workplace problems, not crimes, and so they are not ever prosecuted. In the workplace, companies often cover up for the harassers because they are the ones that are high producers for the company.

A:

Charlottesville was obviously frightening, as was my time with the armed neo-Nazis in the Northwest. Some of the early meetings, before I fully gained trust, was of course nerve-racking but I found myself settling into it quicker than I thought I would.


Q:

Great question Cory.
Most annual fruiting plants will have similar growth cycles and enjoy similar conditions. Examples would be tomatoes, peppers, tomatillos, and hops. The ideal growing conditions for these kinds of plants would be slightly above moderate temperatures and moderate humidity.

If you're looking for genetic similarity to marjuana hops are one of the closest genetic corollaries and produce similar aromas and flavors (terpenes). Let us know if you have a more specific question we can help with here regarding plant types you're interested in growing.

A:

I think the media is like a double edge sword it has huge power for good but at the same time it can come at a cost. For me the majority of my experiences have always added to the greater good there are a few exceptions, however.


Q:

Horrendous hotels!

A:
  1. It usually different from each individual. My best way is usually playing along in what they are seeing or telling. Also talking them away from subjects that will anger them or anything like that helps. One of the women living here would always think the employees stole her items and get angry but just asking about her dog or her husband or something like and instead she would tell stories about her life and that would make her in a good mood.

  2. Dementia is one of the worse things to deal with. Not only for the afflicted but also for those around. I don't know how far your relative is because it gets worse. But talking about things they know or memories always helps. Personally my grandma had alzheimers and she thought I were my dad. I totally understand how you must feel.


Q:

In your travels, have there been any places (in Europe if at all possible) that you'd recommend visiting for stargazing? I'd absolutely love to buy a telescope (and that book!) but live in a very densely packed, light polluted country and will never get the chance to see much of anything here.

Alternatively, do you have any tips to bring down a power grid in a couple hundred km radius?

A:

That's not weird at all. A similar design is employed in practically every hairdressing salon in the UK and probably elsewhere... Prevents water dripping down your neck.


Q:

Have a lot of questions because I've been fortunate enough to never have witnessed or experienced any sexual harassment in my work place, but I've always wanted to know, why does it take so long for people to report incidents? I want to believe the work place has systems in place to directly protect victims of sexual harassment but maybe it's much more broken than I imagine...

A:

Hi Patrick, When you were undercover what was the closest you came to being found out? Was there a moment when you thought your life could be in danger?


Q:

Which plants would you recommend growing along with marijuana?

A:

Did you suffer from PTSD? How was the treatment, how long was that road?


Q:

Hi Warwick, How different did it feel working on the newest Star Wars films to how it was back in the 80s?

A:

My mom’s mom worked in a nursing home for years and when she heard that my dad’s mom had Alzheimer’s, she said it’s a disease worse than cancer; it steals a person’s soul before their life. It never really hit me until I saw my dad’s mom days before she died; she looked just like my grandma lying in her bed but she wasn’t my grandma anymore.


Q:

Do the Canary Islands count as part of Europe? I observed at the top of La Palma once and that was AMAZING!

A:

Laura: That's cool to know! I don't think this design is as popular in the US -- the ones I've seen use a u-shaped dip in the sink bowl, where you rest your head.

I think the invention itself is totally practical -- what I found slightly eerie was finding a patent that looks like I was the inventor, even though it was patented decades before I was born. :::cue spooky music:::


Q:

This is Amanda Farahany. Reporting is usually very difficult for people, because at first, they believe they can make it stop themselves. Then, they fear for their job and being retaliated against for complaining. Finally, many people don't trust HR to handle the complaint appropriately, and fear that they will not be believed without something more than their word that it happened.

A:

I mixed up parts of my backstory a few times and once I said the first part of my real name by accident after a long day. It created some confusion but I managed to quickly explain myself. I think in the moment I came up with a story of how I sometimes was using my middle name...!


Q:

For sure, any green leafy vegetables. I like to grow peppers and cherry tomatos - also below the canopy of buds you can grow herbs like cilantro or basil.

A:

I feel extremely blessed in that I have not suffered from PTSD. I have had flashbacks, I now have aversions to things that didn’t bother me before, but that’s it.


Q:

It's really not that different. I find it just as exciting as I did when I was 11 and many of the techniques used have not changed at all.

A:

So true. Losing a person while them still being around is weird and hard. I hope you coped it well.


Q:

Thanks for answering some questions, today! I have a few regarding our nearest neighbor, the Proxima system

What are your thoughts on Dr. Hawking's Starshot Project?

Assuming they succeed in sending a flock of microships to Proxima, what kind of information would you expect and/or like to see returned?

If, as presumed, it turns out Proxima b is tidally locked, what challenges would that eventually present whenever humans try to visit?

A:

I've always found the TESS interface pretty creepy - any plans to do a refresh?


Q:

It isn't. I used to manage a retail store and if a customer is harassing an employee you can ask them to leave, ban them from the premises, and/or call the police. At one point or another I've done all of the above which was perfectly within my authority.

A:

Did you find yourself empathising with them?


Q:

Do they have any complementary benefits for the growing conditions of the marijuana (like say beans do in terms of nitrogen-fixing)?

A:

What misconceptions about your abduction would you like to make people more aware of?


Q:

Hello!!! If you could adopt any fantasy beast or creature from the various universes you’ve acted in as a pet, what would you choose?

A:

My grandfather has dementia and currently lives with me. He has this incredible aversion to showering and just refuses to clean himself, and also refuses help from myself or other outside staff. Have you seen this behavior before, and if so have you found a way to effectively promote self cleaning?

Side note: he’s also completely deaf, so communication is difficult to say the least. Thanks!


Q:

I think the biggest issue in the starshot project is probably not getting there, but getting any sort of signal back to Earth! We could probably not even detect our normal radio broadcasts from that distance, so how are you going to tell it from a nano bot thingy?! more info here on this problem

A:

Paul F: We're always working to upgrade our IT tools, including TESS, which is part of our Trademarks Next Generation project. You can tune in to today's TPAC livestream for updates from CIO John Owens, starting at 10:50 am ET.


Q:

This is Amanda Farahany. A company is responsible for ensuring that its employees are not harassed - both from other employees and also from customers. Your coworker should think about filing with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and/or talking with an attorney. She also can get unemployment - even if she quit - because she quit for a good reason under the law.

A:

At times you empathise with individuals on a human level. I spent a lot of time talking about their issues. But overall I was always aware of their ideas and what they wanted to achieve and that they liked me because of the colour of my skin. So at the end of the day it’s difficult to empathise with them.


Q:

Green leafy vegetables attract microbes that fix nitrogen and put it in the soil in organic forms. This builds soil chemistry and helps all kinds of plants grow better.

You can add aromatic herbs to the garden, such as rosemary and lavender, because they will attract pollinators and species that may help prevent predators from infesting your cannabis plants.

Be careful of curcubits that attract powdery mildew - cucumbers and squash are likely to increase the risk of fungal infections in your garden.

A:

I couldn’t just runaway. I couldn’t just scream out. Everything I did, I did to survive. I never suffered from Stockholm Syndrome. I never identified with my captors or cared about them. Every decision was made with survival in mind.


Q:

I like the look of the Porgs in The Last Jedi.

A:

I could imagine. Seeing it from their point of view. Maybe he is embarrassed about the whole situation? Trying to convince him that it really isn't a problem and it will be over in a second could be a solution. Otherwise try making it as comfortable as possible so when you get him in a shower try to have fun and make him laugh so he won't have a negative view on it.


Q:

Interesting, thank you! I'll be sure to read through that...

Follow up:

Since their plan involves sending multiple craft, would it be possible for them to create a 'network' of sorts (i.e. wirelessly tie them together), to boost the signal? Or would they not have enough payload in order to do something like that?

A:

Favorite Halloween candy?


Q:

1) How tough does it get to prove the allegations? Are there any ways for victims to prove the harassment, if it is not recorded?

2) Apart from the Movie industry, what are the other industries where Sexual Harassment is prevalent?

3) Does Movie industry/corporations generally have special wings in HR department which deals with harassment or other such grievances? Is there any mandate on that?

A:

What did you find is driving people towards these beliefs? Were they instilled by family members? Is it simply a victim mentality? What's the driver and why are we seeing what appears to be a rise in these beliefs right now?


Q:

I've been using Fox Farms for the last few years, but am interested in going 100% organic, will I get the same yield & quality?

A:

What would you most like to tell us that no one has asked?


Q:

Does making Willow 2 interest you?

A:

1.Do you tell them the same jokes they love over and over?
2. Are there any therapies that they do to promote brain health?
3. Do they just deteriorate to the point of staring off into the distance?
4. If you were in their shoes would you want to end it?
5. Do you ever mess with them, like calling them Mom/Dad?


Q:

I confess I haven't followed the engineering plans enough to give a real answer to this one, sorry! I mean, the real question is surface area and power, so the former could be addressed via interferometry between the little bits. I'm still not sure about how a nano whatever would generate enough power.

A:

Laura: A favorite (trademarked!) candy of mine is Butterfinger®.


Q:

This is Amanda Farahany. Many people fear coming forward to report harassment because they don't have "proof" or "evidence", but what most people don't realize is that their word is proof and evidence of what happened. A proper investigation by the company will include making credibility determinations about what really occurred. In addition, as we have seen with Harvey Weinstein, harassment is pattern behavior. Even Weinstein started out seeing what he could get away with, and as he was able to get away with it over and over, his behavior became even more outrageous. Looking in to someone's history who harasses will often reveal other victims.

A:

This is a really complex question and probably too hard to answer here quickly. The real question is what makes white men, many of whom are middle class and/or relatively well educated, decide that they - not ethnic minorities - are in fact the real victims in society. The whole movement is consumed with a sense of victimhood. They genuinely believe that white men are the most oppressed people in society. Understanding why this is is the key. The answer is very complicated. Often it is about a sense of relative decline. In other words they are not doing as well in life as they expected to. Many are from white middle class families, went and got a degree and yet are now in their mid-twenties but still don’t have a job and live at home. They then resent being told how ‘lucky’ and ‘privileged’ they are. In short, while they are privileged, they don’t feel it and this makes them angry and causes them to search for answers. The alt-right offers easy answers to these very difficult question: “Your life isn’t going as you planned, well here is someone to blame!” Of course, on top of this there is plain old racism, sexism, and hatred.


Q:

Which foxfarm products are you using?

A:

My favorite movie is Eddie The Eagle. I can eat Ben & Jerry’s Cherry Garcia by the pint, and my toughest boss is my two year old daughter.


Q:

Yes.

A:
  1. I do! Their favorite one is ''A blind mand walks into a bar... A table... And a chair''
  2. There are! It is simple things like watching old photoalbums, sitting alone with them talking about their life asking about specifik details, also taking them out for walks.
  3. Depends on the diesease. Worst cases are just them talking a lot about strange things or disjointed and don't remember very well.
  4. Tough question. I have heard a lot of people saying they would kill themselves if they ended like that but to those who deals with it - everything is normal.
  5. Most of them actually has really great humor! So they would mostly mess with me. A day I was really tired I laid my head on my hand and rested my elbow on the table. One of the men living there smacked my arm away from under my head so my head fell directly into the table. He then laughed like a evil genius.

Q:

How did you decide on astronomy instead of some other branch of physics?

A:

Favorite Halloween candy?


Q:

With there often being little, if any, direct proof of harassment: how can punishment (termination, sanction, character assassination) be justified when there is a contradictory account by the accused?

A:

Hi Patrick,

Why did your group feel the need for you to go undercover?


Q:

Three part: tiger bloom, grow big, big bloom.

A:

Were there moments when you thought "this is it"? Conversely, were there moments when you thought "this will all be over soon"?


Q:

Hello Mr. Davis, out of all the prosthetics and makeup you’ve had to wear, which was your favorite and which was the most difficult to have applied?

A:

What was the best moment of your career?


Q:

Honestly, I've always been mainly interested in astronomy, and then learned you need to know physics to do astronomy (I have a BSc and MSc in physics, actually, not astro). So I confess I never really was interested in particle physics or solid state or anything else.

As to why astronomy, the answer is I had a long bus ride as a kid to school so spent the time reading, and one day picked up a book on astronomy in the library when I was 13. By the time I was done with that book, I knew I wanted to be an astronomer, and haven't wavered in that since!

A:

Liz: Kit Kats, always. I also wish more people handed out fun-sized bars of Skor.


Q:

This is Amanda Farahany. This is why an independent investigation by a neutral third party is so important. There rarely is direct proof of harassment, but a thorough and impartial investigation will uncover what is really going on

A:

This is a really good question. HOPE not hate do undercover research for a number of reasons. Firstly, many far-right groups portray a far more moderate image to the outside world than they do in private. Going undercover allows us to expose the true hateful politics behind the scenes. However, it also gives us an unparalleled understanding of how these far-right movements organise and interact. We also gain information about their plans which gives us time to plan our response. We are always one step ahead!


Q:

The Bloom City Craft Grow Kit has a similar nutrient profile as the Fox Farm products. You can expect similar quantity yield (all other components of the growing system being equal) with the big differentiator being 1) the Bloom City kit is 100% organic, Fox Farms is not 2) our included Boost probioitic soil conditioner has been proven to produce higher THC and CBD levels, and increased terpenes/aromas/colors in your finished bud.

Overall you should expect better finished flower quality from an organic grow with a healthy rizosphere/root zone than from a grow lacking these properties.

A:

Yes, there were lots of times I thought, this is it I’m going to die wether if it was directly at the hands of my captors or through consequences of their actions. It was hard to believe it was over until I was in my dad’s arms being hugged at the police station.


Q:

The Griphook make-up in Harry Potter was the most challenging. It was very heavy and restrictive but I think it looked incredible. I have so much respect for Nick Dudman and his team of artists.

A:

Hard to tell :D But there are usually moments that I will remember. I took one of them to the graveyard so they could visit her husband. She started crying and gave me a hug. We went for a long walk around a lake where she told stories about her husband and kids.


Q:

Gotta ask: which book? Sounds like a good one.

A:

For example, what about "A non-transitory computer-readable medium, spooookily possessed with program code comprising..." ?


Q:

Have you covered many sexual harassment cases where the harassed was a male?

A:

Hey Patrick,

Really respect your work. Did any alt-righter ever mention (1) the spread of disinformation or (2) the usage of ironic humour, for instance through memes, to propagate their ideology? If so, what did they say about it (e.g. were the vulnerabilities of new media seen as opportunities)?

Thanks!


Q:

Pure. Utter. Garbage.

A:

Did you ever have any contact with Nancy Grace after the garbage she tried to pull with you? BTW, I don't think you could've handled that any better.


Q:

Which Leprechaun movie was your favorite, and if you could pick any setting for a future movie, what would you choose?

A:

Hey,

Thanks for doing a Q&A, I hope I'm not too late and this comment doesn't get buried as this is something quiet close to my heart and it would mean a great deal if you could offer a little advice and guidance.

A little back ground information. My Nanna was diagnosed with Alzheimer's around about 4 years ago, she is 91 years old and still lives in her bungalow, alone. My Grandma, my Nannas daughter, is her primary carer. She is adamant not to have to put my Nanna in a care home. Over the past few month my Gran has started paying for some carers to come in at certain intervals during the day just to ensure that my Nanna is OK as it had gotten to a point where my Gran was basically living with my Nanna after a recent event of her taking a weeks worth of medication in a matter of hours.

The week before last it was my Nannas birthday, my grandparents took her an hour out of town for afternoon tea. They stayed for about 3 hours then drove home, when they got home my Gran did my Nannas hair and her nails for her for the family coming round to my Grans for food that evening. Family arrived, stayed 4-5 hours, we all had something to eat, then my Gran took my Nanna home.

The following day my Gran went to my Nannas, as she does every morning, and asked her if she enjoyed her day yesterday to which my Nanna replied 'what happened yesterday?'. It's truly heartbreaking to see.

I have a few questions below, some seeking advice, some wondering the normality of what my Nanna and we all are going through:

1) Repetitive conversations are something which stands out the most with my Nanna, she can ask how work is and you'll tell her it's going good and by the time she has processed the fact you've said it's good she has asked you about it again. Is there any tips on reoccurring conversations? It feel rude just to ignore her. 2) Whenever we try to start conversation with my Nanna it is unsuccessful, she just smiles and nods whenever you ask her a question, as if she is not really listening, again, is there any advice you have for this? 3) This is a bit of a strange one which I'd love to know the answer to; my Nanna constantly folds up pieces of tissue paper and stuffs them down the side of the sofa, in her handbag and hangs pieces on door handles, is there any reason for this? 4) Crisps. All she eats is crisps. If we walk into the supermarket the first thing she asks is where are the crisps? Is there a reason for a certain craving of food?

Again, thank you for doing this.


Q:

Out of print and probably not the best resource today with current knowledge (like, exoplanets didn't exist yet!). I did post a book list on my subreddit that may interest you though.

A:

Liz: Any of the coffin patents, especially US 901,407, which is for a grave attachment. This patent is for an invention that provided a way to observe or watch a body after it’s been interred. It reminds me of the time I visited one of the historic cemeteries in New Orleans and learned about how some people were buried prematurely. There was definitely a need for this kind of invention.


Q:

This is Amanda Farahany. I have had a few cases where the harassed was male, but that has typically been male on male harassment. I have had a couple cases where a woman harassed a man, but it has been the rare circumstance

A:

Thank you! Yes, that irony is a powerful tool to make their ideas more palatable was brought up often. You can read much more about this in the full report which you can download here: https://alternativeright.hopenothate.com


Q:

Looks interesting. Without knowing too much about it or having used it before I'd say the upsides appear to be potential simplicity. Downsides are price, inflexibility of managing your own grow, and being locked in to what looks like a proprietary system (generally not a good thing).

You don't want your plant to die because your robot broke down!

A:

Thank you, and no.


Q:

Lep 3. I think it would be fun to do a Leprechaun / Pirates hybrid movie.

A:

Hey you! You are just in time! I will do my best to go over the whole thing. First of all your grandma sounds like the sweetest thing! The short team memory loss is sad. But most important of all if your grandparents had a lovely day then it was all worth its a memory to cherish. Actually had kinda the same with my grandma. Took her out in her wheelchair to the local bar where she had a beer and we went for a walk in the local park. I rode her home and my parents came by with food. She didn't remember it a couple of days after but she was so happy that day and I really had a great day with her!

  1. Repetitive converstations are there a lot of. I deal with this everyday. My best take on it is to force the conversation to something else she might remember. Like where she lived when she was a kid, hobbies, school etc. It is also a great treatment against memory loss but again in your case she is very old.
  2. She might be having trouble with coping with more than one thing. Try having conversations with her alone without music or radio or anything else. And use few and simple words.
  3. A lot of elderly people do this. Moves pillows, folds napkins, constantly has to do something with their hands. I think when their brain can't stay engaged they need to something with their hands. As long as it doesn't hurt anyone or is annoying I'd suggest you just would let her do it cause it isn't something that is going to change. Otherwise try giving her some towels so she has something to fold also consider stuffed pets. They tend to enjoy petting and taking care of them its sweet!
  4. Not sure. She might just love crisps! We have some who are the same way with beer and wine lol.

Thanks for your question!


Q:

Hi! Space is my favorite thing, and you're my favorite redditor because of the things you do.

My question is, what do you do in your spare time or days off?

A:

This one creeps me out.


Q:

This question is for Amanda. What has been your most interesting case?

A:

I'm also researching the far-right on digital platforms at the University of Amsterdam. One question we encountered: what is new about the new right? One 'answer' we came up with is that they now seem to be funny - nazi's usually weren't. The 'new-far-right' has a transgressive, politically-incorrect character on their side, which is often a pool for jokes, whereas leftist thought is often characterised by tolerancy, and pointing to the alt-right's incorrectness often ends up feeding the trolls/them stating you misinterpret them.

How do you think one can best counter their use of transgressive humour? From your experience, were there ever lefist (online) actors that were effectively disturbing the alt-right narrative that subsequently annoyed the alt-righters you met?


Q:

What sort of non-proprietary automation gear do you recommend?

A:

What was it like trying to re-join society? Do/did people always want to ask details or have they generally been respectful?


Q:

I absolutely love Willow. I killed my vhs as a kid I watched it so much. Would you be willing to do a sequel even after so long? It would be cool to see you ask the next generation what finger holds the magic to change the world.

A:

I care for an elder with stage 4 Alzheimer's. Any advice on how to convince her to shower? I always make sure the bathroom is warm, same with the water and I still outside the door while she bathes (she won't let me help, sometimes she will let me help dry her off but she's pretty shy) and sometimes let's me help her into her clean nightgown.

But often she doesn't want to bathe and gets a full shower maybe once every 2 weeks. I'd try for weekly but that just isn't happening. I also gave shower wash caps and bathing wipes if necessary.

I've read that bathing is a common issue and done everything I can to make it more comfortable, but are there any tricks or I guess trade secrets you've come across in your time working with multiple people? Thanks!


Q:

Firstly, I love to travel, even if it's just for a day trip- I have only lived in Canada since January, so there's been a ton of those to do. Last weekend I finally made the weekend trip to Ottawa, and was pleasantly surprised at how nice it was given how much Canadians knock it.

Beyond that, I am really into geocaching, cross stitch (here's one I made of Orion!), reading, downhill skiing, and trying new beers. I also am one of those people who bikes everywhere, but more because I lived in the Netherlands for several years than being one of those bike people.

A:

That's technically not a question, but it IS pretty creepy!


Q:

This is Amanda. Great question - but I have to say my most interesting cases are not fit for publication online! Suffice it to say that despite doing this for almost twenty years, I am still shocked by some of the horrendous ways people are being harassed in the workplace

A:

Hi there – it would be great to follow up this discussion over email. Could you please drop us a line at [email protected] ? Thanks!


Q:

There's a lot of different ways I can go in answering this question. Can you tell me a little bit about what you're trying to achieve with the grow? Inside or outside, plant count, personal or commercial/medical, etc?

A:

People have almost always been very respectful. The hardest part about rejoining society was realizing that I would never go back to being the old me.


Q:

An older Willow would be interesting to explore.

A:

We have one who is hard to make her take a shower but promising her to wash her back always seems to help lol. But some of the aggressive ones or who is really confused it's easier to just to start the shower and say ''alright take of your clothes'' in a friendly manner. Offering to give coffee afterwards will always help!


Q:

Favorite beer in Toronto?

A:

This one creeps me out?


Q:

Do you feel people not directly involved in the #metoo movement are just reposting it just to be part of something? How do you verify legitimacy of harassment cases?

A:

Hi, did you uncover any connections to current or former politicians?


Q:

What sort of non-proprietary automation gear do you recommend?

A:

In your opinion as a children's advocate, what are some practical, commonsense steps parents can take to help their children avoid abuse? (And I guess I mean abuse in a general way, anything from extreme bullying to abduction.)


Q:

Warwick, if you could cast any spell only once each day, what would it be?

A:

Has any of your patients suddenly become lucid, and knew what was happening to them?

What techniques do you find help to prolong their lucidity?


Q:

Steamwhistle is probably my default "nice pilsner" kind of beer- fun beer tour too! :)

A:

Paul F: I have always been fascinated by technology and innovation, and getting to meet the people behind the inventions is simply amazing. As a former radio personality, being able to meet people like National Inventor’s Hall of Fame inductees James West, co-inventor of the Electret Microphone, or Garrett Brown, inventor of the Steadicam (who also happened to film the uber creepy tricycle scene in “The Shining”) is about as cool as it gets. I’m also fortunate enough to work with a great group of colleagues who share a similar sense of humor and tend to geek out over all the same things I do.


Q:

This is Amanda Farahany. Harassment cases are verified in lots of different ways, starting from looking at the history of the harasser to looking at the credibility of the victim. Often times, there are indications that someone is telling the truth, such as the victim telling her friends about what's happening as it was happening.

A:

It depends which side of the movement you are talking about. The more extreme, racially obsessed ‘alt-right’ side of the movement have very few links to mainstream politicians due to their extremeness. However, I did manage to record Jason Jorjani, one of the leading alt-right figures (co-founder of altright.com alongside Richard Spencer), bragging that he had links to the Trump administration. You can read more about that in the essay I've written here: https://alternativeright.hopenothate.com/my-year-inside-the-international-alt-right

However, the more moderate end of the movement (the so-called alt-light) have far more links to the White House and many even get press credentials! It’s terrifying. My colleague at HNH wrote about that here: https://alternativeright.hopenothate.com/influence-of-the-alternative-right


Q:

Also, to comment on the pesticide portion of your question. Our grow kit and growing supplements are pesticide and additive free. One of the best ways to avoid pest infiltrations (and thus the need for pesticides) is to have a healthy garden. Thriving plants aided by the right nutrients produce their own anti-fungals, anti-pathogen and anti-predator compounds.

On the automation side of things, simple things like sprinkler timers, light timers, and fan timers are most of what you'll need to get a grow going, other than managing the nutrient delivery (which our kit and guide attempt to make simple for any skill level of gardener).

A:
  1. Make sure your child knows that they are loved unconditionally, and make sure your child knows what unconditionally means.
  2. Make sure that your child understands that no one has the right to hurt them or scare them in any way. It doesn’t matter what that person may be: family, friend, religious leader, community leader, it doesn’t matter.
  3. Should anyone hurt your child or threaten them in anyway, they need to tell you.

Q:

An anti-discrimination spell.

A:

One of the men living here always say some strange things. When he is in his bed he will tell me to remember to pad the dog when I leave and turn off the car aswell. Stuff like that. One day I had him out for a walk and we walked by a graveyard. He then tells me ''there is a german soldier graveyard in the back of it'' And I have lived here my whole life so I wasn't sure about this but he convinces me to go in and have a look. There actually was a german soldier graveyard hidden behind some trees. I was kinda shocked. But we left the graveyard and walked in a little neighborhood. He then yells into a garden where a guy was cutting grass ''Hey you ugly bastard''. The man comes over to us and im prepared to explain that he has dementia etc. Turns out the man he yelled at was an old work employee from like 40 years ago. He invited us to a cup of coffee and they talked about old times.

Just basic things like going for walks, ask them about their life or look at old photographs. Asking into details like ''what was your address'' or ''what did you do after school'' will always push them a little.


Q:

Hello fellow goecacher from a one in Indiana! There used to be a great series caches in Bloomington, IN. The dome on the courthouse is the "sun" and each planet is its own cache. It is a 1:133,700,000 scale model of the solar system. Neptune (GC31N1v) is still active as are a few others. It's very informative and a great way to teach the scale of it all (Neptune is 20.7 miles away from the "sun").

A:

This one creeps me out?


Q:

What is appropriate workplace flirtation? In all the talk about combating sexual harassment I rarely hear anyone modeling appropriate sexual behavior.

A:

Whens a full documentory going to come out?


Q:

I'm an avid gardener, but first time pot grower. I have about a 5ft by 5ft indoor space in my basement to grow this winter, how much can I grow?

A:

The most obvious question is "how are you doing?" and also what type of therapy has helped the most?


Q:

What are your favorite TV shows right now?

A:

which patient had the biggest impact on your way of thinking and seeing the world?


Q:

Cool! I remember I was looking once at an observatory in Australia and they had a similar system there (and there's one across the state of Georgia). Always though it would be super fun to do a series like that.

A:

Sharon (our colleague in Human Resources):Thanks for your interest! The best way for us to understand your qualifications is by doing what you already know to do: apply via USAJOBS. But here’s something you might not already know: you can apply to more than one vacancy announcement for different engineering disciplines.  It’s the best way to increase your chances of landing an interview. 

For more info on jobs at the USPTO and to stay connected with us outside of Reddit, check us out on (LinkedIn) [https://www.linkedin.com/company/uspto] and at [@USPTOJobs on Twitter](http://www.twitter.com/uspto]!  

And if you have any additional questions, contact us at [email protected]!


Q:

This is Amanda Farahany. Just like a lawyer, I'm going to tell you - it depends. If there aren't issues of power dynamics, and the flirtation is welcome, then it's appropriate. On the other hand, if there are power dynamics - then it's going to be a problem if the conduct is unwelcome.

A:

We're really excited about the film but it will be a bit longer unfortunately! To stay up to date follow @hopenothate @hopenothate_usa or sign up here: https://hopenothate.com/videos/


Q:

What state are you in?

A:

I’m great.

You have to find what’s right for you in therapy. There’s no formula for everyone. For me, my family was huge. I found my music extremely therapeutic. I have always found horseback riding and being in nature therapeutic.


Q:

I am absolutely loving Stranger Things 2. I have resisted watching the whole series in one sitting, instead savouring one episode each evening. If they do make a season 3, I will personally travel to and camp outside The Duffer Bros. house to get a part.

A:

Hard to tell. One of the residents here are the sweetest thing! Always jokes around with me, hugs me, tells me she has missed me when I haven't been to work. She is the most loveable person I have ever met and it would make me sad when her times comes to and end.

Also there is a husband and wife who lives here. They are so sweet! Their tragic story was when they lived at their farm the husband got grumpy and forgot things and the wife and trouble dealing with it so he moved to our home. The wife unfortunately had a blood clot in her brain a week after he moved out. She lost her speech and the ability to walk. They only thing she can say is ''cluckcluckcluck'' but she understands everything you tell her. They live in the same home now and they still sit around every day holding hands and kisses! It makes me appreciate coming home to my girlfriend even more!


Q:

Omg I'm early to an AMA that I'm actually interested in!

As a freshman in high school, I've always been interested in astronomy. I am planning on asking around the high school to see if there is a class on astronomy, but where would I start trying to learn about this subject?

A:

Where can I go to view these creepy IPs?


Q:

IMO modeling acceptable behavior could be more effective than just explaining unacceptable behavior. Do you know if anyone has studied this?

A:

Where there any times when the alt-right showed agreement with the left? Anything they agreed on or was it all in direct opposition to the values of the left?


Q:

Colorado

A:

How did you meet your husband? How has he been involved with your advocacy work?


Q:

You played three different roles in Harry Potter, how easy was it to keep all the characters distinct when playing them? Were you familiar with the Harry Potter universe before taking on the roles?

A:

Hello, I am sorry but I am hijacking another question. I have another story I would love to share.

Years ago, I looked after a religious man with a rare form of dementia. As his disease progressed, he became nonverbal and bed/chairbound. He became very violent when care was being provided to him. Medication helped some, but he was always aggressive, almost as is he was trying to protect himself. He would hit out at the air, hallucinating.

His care providers would do his care very slowly, leaving and reapproaching, then describing what they were doing for him.Often he would nod and say yes to consent, but it seemed like he would forget what was going on within a minute and start hitting again.

He was started on music therapy. The music therapist would sing religious hymns with him, and he started singing along! It was amazing to see someone who was almost completely nonverbal sing along to familiar music.

The music was opening up some kind of pathways in his brain because he would say thank you and goodbye to the therapist. He would often be very calm after these sessions. He started making eye contact again, and occasionally smiling.

Music is a very powerful tool to affect the human body in positive ways.

Edit: grammar.


Q:

I wrote a book list here that might interest you!

Beyond that, it's very likely that your area has an amateur astronomy club, and that club likely has open star parties as well as monthly lectures for members and things like that. Check Google!


Q:

Helena here: for me, my favorite part of my job is meeting people and learning about my community. My favorite stories to write are human interest stories, stories about inspiring people in our community. For example this one: http://specials.myajc.com/fixer/

A:

On a younger base – Great question! It’s complicated of course and it differs between individuals what it is that attracts them. But generally speaking, the alt-right has managed to position itself as rebellious and a movement against the elites. They are also very good at making use of online forums and social medias where they have given lots of young men a sense of community and a cause to identify with.


Q:

Staying in line with Colorado law, you are able to grow 6 plants total, 3 in veg and 3 in bloom at any time. In a 5x5 indoor space, using our Craft Grow Kit you could easily take 3 plants from veg to bloom growing in 5-7 gallon pots on a 16 week grow cycle.

A:

We were both serving missions in France for our church and that’s where we met. He supports me so that I can do my advocacy work because it can be emotionally taxing.


Q:

You have to approach each character differently. it starts with the way they think, then add body language and posture. They become distinct and different automatically, it wasn't a conscious effort.

A:

No worries! Feel free :D My experience in musical treatment is very small. I will definitely try to implement it way more!


Q:

Hello, i am noob but fascinated by astronomy. What is the outcome of the observation of the collision of neutron stars? Is it completing any major incomplete fundamental theory ? Completing our understanding of the universe? of its creation ?

Also quickely checked the proof .... Really ? punched by wild mountain gorilla ? Care to tell the tale ?

A:

How do you guys get paid, and do you guys get paid?


Q:

What do these people actually believe in and is it coherent; and what do you think is the difference between the alt-right and other conservative groups?

A:

interesting, thanks for the info! so what would it cost to setup a grow like this, and how much pot would it grow?


Q:

Is there anything you noticed in your captor, whether it be a certain look or manner of speech that would serve as a red flag for you if seen/ heard from another person?

Or, rather, can you sense if someone you encounter is capable of such a thing?

A:

Mr. Davis, what's it like being part of two of the biggest franchises (Star Wars and Harry Potter) of all time?


Q:

I just feel like I need to vent for once since I dont like talking about it when I'm sober. Only 3 of my friends knows this but my mom is suffering from dementia. My grandmother has it also. My mother and father separated when i was 21 and now I'm 24. I heard from my aunt that as my mothers dementia progressed it started messing with her head, as it does with my grandmother, making her distance herself from our family.

I was always a "momas boy" but nowadays I rarely see her. She lives alone about 3 km from me but i rarely visit her because every time I see her I know that she doesnt really have full control of her memories and it seems like shes ashamed of that. She doesnt know where I "hold up" nowadays and every time I see her it is like a kind of strained conversation. I know that she still loves me but she cant seem to express it, you could almost compare it to any time we talk it is like talking to an old classmate that you used to get along really well with but you havent seen eachother for a long time so you dont have much to talk about or something similar. I have 2 siblings and I sure as fuck dont want to be the one catching dementia of us when we get older. The worst part is that my mother is 60 and she still has some years left. Her medecine that was meant to slow down the dementia doesnt work as well anymore and I'm not sure if she even will remember me before she dies. Ive been in a carecenter for people suffering from dementia and it wasnt pretty so I really dont want her to be in a place like that.

So since this is an AMA thread i have to ask a question, so what is the most popular ice cream flavour among the elderly people suffering from dementia that you've met?

PS: Dementia sucks. The end.

A:

Which observation? :)

What I study lately is a star that exploded whose light reached us 30 years ago, called Supernova (SN) 1987A. It's a really interesting because even though it's 170,000 light years away from us, in a satellite galaxy of our Milky Way, it's the closest supernova to us since the invention of the telescope! They are that rare!

My research involves making radio images of this supernova over time- here's a simple gif. This is the best detail we can get of how such an exploding star interacts with its surrounding system, and no one's looked at the radio data I'm going to publish since 2013, and lots of cool stuff has been happening lately!

As for the gorilla, I was trekking in Uganda to see the gorillas some years ago, and there was a teenage male in the troop we were going to see named Punchy in the local language. Because he had this game of "I punch you, you punch me back" familiar to teenage males of many species. Luckily it was just a "test punch" so didn't hurt, the rangers dragging you back hurt far more!


Q:

Paul F: Yes, yes we do get paid. Today, it is strictly in bags of candy however, but for the rest of the year, you can see the OPM salary and wage breakdowns for federal employees here: https://www.opm.gov/policy-data-oversight/pay-leave/salaries-wages/2017/general-schedule/

A:

The views prevalent among the broad alt-right are often deeply incoherent, in part because the alt-right is essentially the coalescing of a number of disparate far-right ideologies, many of which clash, into a loose new movement. Also, views commonly held by the alt-right are often just not thought through; for example, how a “peaceful ethnic cleansing” could ever occur, or how a post-industrial economy could cope if all women are forced out of their jobs and back to their homes.

As for differences between the alt-right and other conservative groups, part of what marks it out as new is the sheer extremeness of its positions, which far surpasses typically “conservative” groups, whom the alt-right generally treat with great hostility. The alt-right bucks the right-wing trend of trying to make right wing ideology more palatable by using softer messaging; the alt-right often tries to be as offensive as possible in order to turn off “normies” rather than win them over. Also the centrality of trolling online is a relatively new phenomenon on the right.


Q:

Every grow is different, but at an entry level for a decent quality indoor grow you're probably talking about $500 for your initial setup. This should cover:

3 clones(starter plants): $40-60 pots: $10-20 soil: $20 nutrients: $60 lights: $150 fans and filter: $150 timers: $20

If you want to buy a grow tent, probably another $100. Your 2nd crop will cost about $100 because you're making your own clones and reusing the majority of the tools you bought the first time around.

A:

There are things that make me wary, one of them being when someone uses religion excessively to justify what they’ve done or are going to do.


Q:

I feel incredibly lucky.

A:

First of all. Im so sorry to hear it and I hope you are alright. Maybe take her out and do something fun so the conversation doesn't seem that forced if you guys just sit across a table to each other. Maybe go for walk? You should enjoy your time together before it gets worse. The dementia center isn't always pretty due to most of the residence dealing with the same issues as your mother but sometimes that is a good thing. Feel free to private message me if you would like to talk about it. Well most elderly people likes basic things so vanilla. They are really not into trying anything new.

And yeah dementia sucks dick.


Q:

Sry i edited my question. I was talking about the 2 neutron stars colliding

A:

For microentity fee purposes for a new application, if an inventor had previously filed a provisional and then a nonprovisional based on that same provisional, do they count as two previous filings or just one? If two, does that mean that an inventor who did that twice (two provs and two nonprovs based on said two provs) can no longer file another new application as a microentity?


Q:

Hello, I'm a philosophy and social science student at a Mexican university and I'm working on a project about the Alt-Right movement. I wanted to ask 2 questions:

You wrote about sitting on review boards for new members of the Alt Right in London, can you talk about the recruitment and acceptance processes in the US/UK?

Also, can you talk about the internal ethical code that these groups have? You described the internal fights within the movement, and I imagine there's some sort of ethical norm that they have internally to keep the movement from completely destroying itself.

Thank you for your time and your dedication.

A:

that's all easily attainable from the local hardware store, but where is a good place to get the plants? and would you recommend a grow tent? what benefit does that add?


Q:

I am a survivor of human trafficking, which actually started around the time you had went missing. When you were found I remember it giving me hope and something to keep working toward because it reminded me that there are people out there who care. What was the hardest thing you faced in terms of speaking out and becoming an advocate? I still have so much guilt tied to my experience and I'm 30 now and while I've worked through so much of that, I can't seem to fully accept that it was something that happened to me, not something that I did. If there was one main thing that you wanted to tell a survivor about speaking out, what would it be?

A:

What was your most fun moment on your adventures with Karl?


Q:
  1. What lead you to do the type of work you do?
  2. What do you enjoy about your work?
  3. What do you dislike about your work?
  4. Do you feel that people with dementia are treated with respect and dignity?
  5. What type of training do you have?

Thank you so much for doing this AMA!

A:

Ah, ok! I did a pretty long writeup here about just this! Check it out and give a shout if something doesn't make sense. :)


Q:

Since June 8, 1995, the USPTO has offered inventors the option of filing a provisional application for a patent which was designed to provide a lower-cost first patent filing in the United States. For more information on provisional versus nonprovisional patent applications, please refer to https://www.uspto.gov/patents-getting-started/patent-basics/types-patent-applications/provisional-application-patent. For your specific question, I’d recommend you talk to our Help Center. Phone: 800-786-9199.

A:

Super good questions. Get in touch with us trough our website (hopenothate.com) and have a look at our full report. You can download it here: alternativeright.hopenothate.com


Q:

We have a Get Ready Checklist on our site that can help you find resources for clones and other equipment needed to get going. You can find that here:

Get Ready Checklist

Tents are great if you don't have a standalone space you can dedicate as a grow room, but has no inherent advantages to any other growing environment.

A:

The hardest thing about speaking out and becoming an advocate was the fear of having everyone know what happened to me. The one thing I would tell a survivor about speaking out is no matter what people’s reactions are, you deserve happiness, you deserve love, you deserve support and you deserve to know that you are worthwhile.


Q:

Seeing al the fantastic places we visited and having experiences I wouldn't have had on a normal holiday.

A:
  1. My mom has always worked with healthcare. So I kinda always knew I wanted to help others.
  2. I love that it really isn't stressful. My colleagues are also so helpful and sweet.
  3. Hard to tell. I dont really feel like I have anything that I dislike about it. Even changing diapers or changing sheets cause someone peed in their bed doesn't bother me at all.
  4. I truly do! After starting this kinda work I have the biggest respect for others who do the same. You kinda get a relationship with everyone who lives here so you are like family or good friends.
  5. You might have to elaborate that. But I was following one of my colleagues for weeks and just helping giving baths and stuff like that. If that is what you mean :D

Q:

Is the supernova in that gif being gravitationally lensed?

A:

Awesome. Thanks!


Q:

Hi, based on being so close with these guys, what do you think is the best way to counter them? Facts, feelings, ignore them, mental health?

A:

this is perfect! thanks!


Q:

Hi Elizabeth, thank you for opening yourself up to us in this manner. I've held you in my thoughts and heart for years, just wishing you the best.

I'm just wondering, in general, how did your friends treat you after your return home? Have you stayed in contact with any of your friends from before your abduction, and were you able to find support in your friends upon return?

A:

Also, were you offended by the way he talks about you (little fella, etc) or did you find it part of his charm?


Q:

I work night shifts at a home for people with Alzheimer’s and dementia as well! Two questions for you.

  1. How has working third shifts/working at a home in general affected you as a person - mentally and physically?
  2. How often do your male residents get sexual or aggressive (not sexually) with you, family members, and other residents? I know that dementia can tend to bring out some interesting character traits in people that they really didn’t have before, or traits they did have and just kept suppressed. I have one resident in particular who is always groping/trying to have sex with our female employees, and sometimes even me (and I’m a man).
A:

No, the shockwave is destroying a ring of gas that was around the star before it exploded! :)


Q:

Laura: Do medical devices count as torture devices? Even though we’ve made major advances in dentistry, anything related to going to the dentist is creepy to me. The patents for various old-time ‘advancements’ like this dental tool, are pretty horrific. I’m sure one day we’ll be saying the same thing about today’s high-tech tools and methods.

A:

For those at the core of the movement the possibility of them changing their views is very slim, least of all as a result by presenting them with the (many) facts that debunk them. What will counter the views of those who are still only slightly red-pilled is likely going to be their engagement with counternarratives to what the far right offer them that address the fears and grievances that led them to alternative political voices in the first place. Similarly, their engagement with people from the groups the far right attack will help to humanise them and make them more resistant to divisive narratives.

Facts matter, but (truthful) narratives that positively address the feelings that lead people to far right politics is more effective than just countering with facts.


Q:

One additional note, the probiotic Boost bottle in the organic Craft Grow kit is a concentrated set of microbes that were selected to break down the organic fertilizers in the soil. Slow releasing nutrients to the plant.

It's like Kombucha for your plants.

A:

Yes, I still have many friends from before I was abducted, and it was awkward maybe the first two seconds I was home and then things just picked up where we had left off.


Q:

I am not easily offended. I just took that as part of Karl's charm.

A:
  1. Physically definitely! After a work shift I always feel like I been running a marathon. So I have trouble hitting the gym in the afternoon lol.
  2. It can happen. We only have a few residence where we know things like that tend to happen. So you are always prepared for it. Funny story actually. We have a woman who has gotten really aggressive and she don't like men. So the first time I met her my colleagues were like ''wait here and turn your back to her''. So I did that - she then grabbed my butt and said ''Not bad''. But yeah. Some of the men can get really inappropriate at times and asked some of the girls if they want to make a baby or come lie with them.

Q:

That's so cool! Is it gas that was in an accretion disk around the star, or gas that was expelled shortly before its explosion?

A:

Are there any #CreepyIP's that one person on the team thought was REALLY creepy and another was like, "meh, that's not so creepy at all"? :-)


Q:

I would think that it was not hard to convince them that you were one of their own. I'm also white and male, and I find that most of the conservatives I know just assume that I agree with their insane positions and beliefs. How hard was it to hold back your true feelings and agree with their lunacy when you disagreed strongly with their opinions?

A:

Are you high?


Q:

Has your abduction created any challenges for you as a wife and a mother?

A:

Is he really an idiot?


Q:

My dad has FTD. Do you have any experience working with people with FTD? This shit sucks and any tips would be great.

He's at the stage where instead of opening the front door, he locks the door handle and deadbolts the lock then wonders why he can't open it. Speech is also fucked. Lack of nouns and verbs when he tries to talk.

A:

We think it was gas that was expelled tens of thousands of years before the star died, perhaps when two stars merged. :)


Q:

Liz: I think we’ve all generally agreed that the patents and trademarks we’ve selected for #CreepyIP have been creepy or strange. I personally think that anything with clowns is extra creepy, but I’m sure there’s been someone on the team who views them as a piece of nostalgia from their childhood. Not. Me.

A:

I agree, there is an assumption that white males should "naturally" agree with them. There were times when I was very angry and what people were saying around me hit me very personally. At those times I was extremely frustrated and it was difficult not to react.


Q:

Nothing would happen. They are completely incapable of being cross pollinated, unless you have the means to genetically engineer new species! In which case, be careful and good luck!

A:

Well, my husband doesn’t like being called Mr. Smart, but other than that no, or that I’ve yet to experience.


Q:

No.

A:

Im so sorry to hear that and I hope that you and your family is okay! Frontotemporal dementia is so hard to deal with. I know there a some medications which can help a little but there really isn't a cure and it will only get worse. When having conversation try just talk about things he surely remembers and ask about details. Like when talking about him - ask him about his birthday, address, first pet etc. But that is probably the best I can do. I really hope you can cope with it. It is hard to deal with.


Q:

Do you have glow in the dark stickers on your ceiling?

A:

Are they preparing for a race war?


Q:

for an indoor grow, what would be the theoretical limit of how small the potting medium and total enclosure area could be for one plant and still produce reasonable yields?

A:

How is it being a reporter for Crime Watch Daily? Do you like that type of work considering your past?


Q:

Mr Davis, if you could choose your last meal on Earth, what would it be?

A:

What's the strangest thing that one of your patient's did?


Q:

I do! My mom bought me some for Christmas this past year, because she is awesome.

A:

Not all but some absolutely are. It’s extremely scary. Many of the people I met, especially in the North West of America were armed and genuinely seemed ready to use them!


Q:

How much pot do you want to grow? What is reasonable for you?

A:

I like doing Crime Watch Daily, because it feels like I’m able to help someone share their story without re-victimizing them because I’ve been in their same shoes.


Q:

Pie.

A:

Strangest thing. Thats a tough question cause there is A LOT. I experience people shaving in the middle of the night, taking of their dirty diapers and hide them, picking up poop from the toilet and putting it in the bin and proceeds to wash hands in the toilet.


Q:

If I may ask only a semi serious question: what does sci-fi/science fantasy almost always seem to get wrong about Astronomy? What do they usualy get right that is surprising?

A:

In your year in the alt-right, what was your scariest experience? Any experiences that nearly made you blow your cover, intentionally or otherwise?


Q:

let's say two cases: daily use and weekly use for one person. in terms of space, would a hydroponics setup take less room?

A:

What is your favorite hobby?


Q:

What's your favorite song?

Thanks for doing this, and for all of your work!

A:

There is no sound in space. I of course know why they do it- Star Wars space battles would be really boring without sound- but that's probably the most common thing you'll see.

I've noticed lately often the visuals of an explosion or black hole or whatever are pretty fantastic and on the level with what we expect- a great use of applying astronomical theories! ;-)


Q:

Good question! I mixed up parts of my backstory a few times and once I said the first part of my real name by accident after a long day. It created some confusion but I managed to quickly explain myself. I think in the moment I came up with a story of how I sometimes was using my middle name...!

Charlottesville was obviously frightening, as was my time with the armed neo-Nazis in the Northwest. Some of the early meetings, before I fully gained trust, was of course nerve-racking but I found myself settling into it quicker than I thought I would.

A:

Case One - 1oz per month. Assuming you smoke a fair amount. Grow two plants at a time, one in veg and one in bloom. You'll need a total of 2' x 4' or a small closet. Grow each plant under a CFL or T5. Each bloomed plant will produce around 2oz.

Case two - Hydro setups will theoretically take up a little more room, because you'll need space for the recirculating water reservoir. Also far more complicated to learn and expensive to buy, but they can also be good systems.


Q:

These days my hobbies are my kids, but I like to listen to audible when I have a chance and the Great British Bake Off.

A:

Always Look on the Bright Side of Life. I had so much fun performing the song in the musical, Spamalot.


Q:

How can I prove we live on a flat Earth?

A:

First off, amazing work. Your patience in your research is very clear to see.

From your time observing the alt-right, do you think that a major cause is the two-party system creating these extremists on both ends? Would you be an advocate for a more parliamentary/multiple party system to avoid this divergent trend between people?


Q:

Have you read the secret life of plants? Thoughts?

What have your previous marketing efforts been?

Where do you see your business in 6 months?

What are the largest obstacles you're currently dealing with?

A:

Do you still play the harp?


Q:

What is your dream roll in a movie?

A:

Go find the edge!


Q:

Thanks very much!! I agree that to an extent, one of the reasons that so many people are looking for alternative movements, both left and right, mainstream parties have continually failed to offer exciting visions for the future that offer solutions to the problems so many people face. Until that happens young people will continue to look for alternatives and unfortunately that means, in some cases, far right alternatives.

A:

Have you read the secret life of plants? Yes, we have, it's an interesting read for sure. There are some thought provoking experiments expressed in the book. While the majority of the results of the experiments in the book have not been duplicated since, we still feel ideas are worth exploring. People who experiment like those who wrote "The Secret Life Of Plants" can be inspiring and can help create new ways to look at old ideas.

What have your previous marketing efforts been? Right now we are focused on educating and building a community of craft growers looking to enter this new world of legal, recreational home growing. So our marketing efforts focus on that, primary through social. We also engage experienced growers with a line of premium supplements designed for specific applications, like CleanKelp & Silica Boost through online advertising channels and tools on the Shopify and Amazon.com platforms.

Where do you see your business in 6 months? In six months we will be entering the first major legal recreational outdoor growing season for cannabis, and we will be focused on supporting the efforts of growers through our Organic Craft Grow Kit and other products to be announced.

What are the largest obstacles you're currently dealing with? We’re working hard to support the fully-legal growing in Washington State, currently under consideration by the legislature, so anyone over 21 years of age can grow without needing a medical card. The majority of states legalizing recreational cannabis are legalizing home growing as well, breaking down the legal barriers this community faces.


Q:

Well, my sister-in-law just got married in Scotland and I played ‘can’t help falling in love’ as she walked down the aisle.

A:

A spy like James Bond.


Q:

Whats your favorite space themed SciFi show?

A:

I live in a small studio apartment in California so I can't install a 220v. What is my best bet for a small 1 plant grow as far as light is concerned? What kind of yield could I expect?


Q:

In 2003 you were known as the girl who was kidnapped, today I think your advocacy work is defining you - in 40 years, when the public hears 'Elizabeth Smart' what do you want them to think of first? Or do desire a life outside the spotlight, where people don't recognize your name?

A:

How was it working with the Yogscast in the past? Would you work with them again in the future?


Q:

Futurama.

A:

In a studio, your best bet is to buy a light that doesn't put off a lot of heat. That way you can grow without a big fan to move air. I would say get a 200w LED or a T5 (4 foot 4 bulb with 3000k bloom bulbs). Off of that light unit with our starter nutrient kit, you can probably grow a third to a half pound of pot as a beginner. Once you get a little more experience, you could probably get closer to a pound per bloom cycle. But probably not more than that until you can get more light. Definitely enough pot to get stoned and talk about ancient aliens!


Q:

I’d be lying if I said anonymity wasn’t tempting, but I want to continue advocating until change happens. It would also be nice to be known as a wife, a mother, a friend.

A:

They are a great team. I'd be happy to collaborate on further project with them.


Q:

If you could smell any object in space, what would it be?

A:

Thank you for responding I feared I may have been too late to the party. There is a 3 drawer filing cabinet that I want to use as a grow tent. Is that big enough for one plant?


Q:

Is there anything "in the moment" that you did that you specifically think saved your life until the police came?

A:

What was it like working with Val Kilmer?


Q:

There are giant clouds of alcohol floating in space that contain enough alcohol in them to take care of everyone's alcoholic needs on Earth... for the age of the solar system. It turns out at least one of the alcoholic clouds out there has the same stuff in it that makes raspberries taste like raspberries, and smells like rum. So space booze is delicious and smells good!

A:

No worries. For that application, I would go for 4 small plants (in 1/2 gallon pots) or 1 bigger plant in a 2 gallon pot. Definitley in that small of a space, I would buy an LED light.


Q:

There were a lot of things. Every decision I made was with survival being the end goal. Specifically, learning their tactics and eventually using those tactics against them.

A:

I think Val is a brilliant person and actor. We got along great, and still do. He is often misrepresented in the media, which is a shame.


Q:

My question is how do we know this? Are we getting all of this info from just the color of it or what? I'm not educated in the field, but I'm pretty sure we don't have a space bartender out there tasting these things for us.

A:

Which is the best season to grow marijuana? Can it be grown out in the open or in a make shift green house with a red light? Also, what some of the best strands to use?


Q:

I hope no one misreads this and thinks it is a negative comment, but I was curious in the age of social media with your specific situation how do you deal with chuckleheads trying to get noticed at your expense either by harassing you or just posting flat out lies about you or your situation that thrust you into the media spotlight? Also, how do you handle (mentally and emotionally) any fake news stories written about you?

A:

Will we ever see any more of Porridge on Dr. Who?


Q:

Basically what we do is take a spectrum of the cloud (so yes, its light) and see what lines are missing in the light at certain wavelengths. Think of it the rainbow you get from a prism, but way more detailed. Clusters of missing lines correspond with an element or molecule where the electrons took exactly that amount of energy to go to change levels in their orbit, and we can confirm these levels thanks to tests in chemistry labs on Earth.

So in the case of space booze, you would go and see these lines that correspond with what molecule smells like raspberries. TBH usually the real issue in a molecular cloud is actually distinguishing lines because you have so many of them!

A:

Outdoor growing in the open: The best season to start marijuana outdoors is in the late spring, plant in early May. It will grow big through early August then begin to bloom, you should harvest around late September/early October.

Greenhouse/hoophouse: You can grow any time of year in a greenhouse or hoophouse, but there are a couple of constratints.
1. You need to make sure the temperature doesn't get too low or high 68F-85F is perfect 2. You also have some supplemental light. In veg you want 18-24 hours of light. 3. In bloom you want only 12 hours of light. If you want to bloom when the natural sunlight is more than 12 hours, then you need to block the sunlight a few hours a day to achieve 12 hours of darkness. A thick tarp pulled over the hoophouse can do this.

Best strain for beginners: blue dream. Its easy to grow and very forgiving to minor mistakes. If you can't find blue dream cuttings, make sure to look for a hybrid (indica/sativa cross) they are more hardy and generally easy to work with.


Q:

The answer to both those questions is the same. I used to read every article and every comment posted about those articles and it made me feel terrible. My older brother one day said, “Elizabeth who cares what these people think? Who cares what these people say? Stop reading them.” So, I stopped reading them.

A:

I'd love to do more Porridge. I think he's a very interesting character with so much more to offer, after all, he is the emperor of the known universe!


Q:

I've seen you comment a lot on a few different subreddits answering physics and astronomy questions, misconceptions, etc. How do you feel your involvement in online forums is a part of your job as an astronomer, if it's any part at all?

A:

Which is the best season to grow marijuana? Can it be grown out in the open or in a make shift green house with a red light? Also, what some of the best strands to use?


Q:

First want to say I'm so impressed by all your incredible advocacy work, and how you've given other survivors of sexual assault such strength.

My question is, how have your experiences and your abduction influenced how you raise your own children? Would you say you're overly safety conscious or cautious?

Thank you for doing this AMA, you're such an inspiration!

A:

What's your favorite ice cream flavor?


Q:

Oh, it's not at all- this is just a hobby/ thing to do during my lunch break! I did submit an abstract though to a communicating astronomy conference next spring though about Reddit, so fingers crossed it gets accepted.

I did once go to a conference (on my research topic) where another grad student said "are you Andromeda321? I've been looking forward to meeting you for weeks!" That was a little weird.

A:

Now for fun lets looks at the economics of micro-greens or lettuce.

Indoor/Greenhouse: System cost $10,000 / 10 years = $1000 per year Number of cycles per year = easily 12 cycles (one per month), probably more like one every three weeks. Production = 750lbs of fresh microgreens Price = $3 per pound for fresh local microgreens, sold to local restaurants Gross profit per cycle = 750lbs * $3 = $2250 Non-reusable Cost per cycle = $400 (lower than pot, because less electricity, less water, and less fertilizer) Net per cycle = $2250 - $400 = $1850 Net per year = (12 cycles * $1850 profit) - $1000 from the hardware investment = $21,200 net profit

Outdoor: System cost = $0 Number of cycles per year = easily 4 cycles (one per summer month) Production = 750lbs of fresh microgreens Price = $3 per pound for fresh local microgreens, sold to local restaurants Gross profit per cycle = 750lbs * $3 = $2250 Non-reusable Cost per cycle = $100 (mainly fertilizer/soil amendments) Net per cycle = $2250 - $100 = $2150 Net per year = (4 cycles * $2150 profit) = $8600 net profit

Both are worthwhile endeavors, but if you're looking to make a career out of this vs just have fun at home, I'd say greenhouse/indoor would be the way to go!


Q:

It’s a constant struggle between being overprotected vs. wanting to let my children experience life so they’re prepared for the future. Fortunately, both of my children are young so I control most of their activities but as they get older I think that it will be a constant battle between letting them experience life on their own terms and wanting to protect.

A:

Vanilla.


Q:

Which would you rather discover, 100 comet-sized Jupiters, or a Jupiter-sized comet?

A:

Do you think social media is a net good for the world?


Q:

With well over 30 years of acting under your belt, where would you like the next 10 to go Mr Davis?

A:

Ooooh, I'm actually spending way too much time thinking about this one because both would be really interesting! Probably 100 comet-sized Jupiters because that would drive my planetary evolution friends mad!


Q:

I’m still debating that. It could be, but I’m not convinced yet.

A:

I'd love to host a TV talk show. I have a title... 'Small Talk with Warwick Davis'


Q:

Follow up, as I had little to think about on my walk home from class: if you were to compress the size AND mass of Jupiter down to the size of an average comet, what would be the result?

A:

What are your most useful anti-abduction tips?


Q:

Hello. Forgive me if this comes out offensive, none is meant.

I really love your work and think you are a great actor. Sometimes I feel like you are somewhat typecasted into rolls inherently designed for little people. Is it hard or even possible to get major roles that are open and not little specific? It's an honest question becuase i would love to see you just act in a position. I feel like every time I've seen you do this its in an project of your own device. Anyway, would love to hear from you mate.

A:

Probably a miniature star because that pressure would be enough to get fusion going.


Q:

Practice screaming, encourage your kids to fight back, there is a place and a time when it’s not only acceptable it’s encouraged. An organization that I work closely with is Rad Kids it’s all about prevention education and you can learn more about them at www.radkids.org

A:

I am very happy with the roles I have been getting throughout my career. They have all been interesting and I am constantly being pushed creatively and learning new skills. I have a new quiz show called 'Tenable' on ITV in the UK and I can honestly say I love hosting it even though it is more difficult than playing a character in a movie, for example.


Q:

If you compressed the size and mass, wouldn't it have the same density as Jupiter, which is not pressurized enough to get fusion going?

A:

I understand that you came from a religious background, and your captors justified their actions with a very sick and twisted version of religious belief. Do you feel a lot of echos of that or have trouble moving back to and reconciling your own faith?


Q:

Whats your favourite flavour of pot noodle??

A:

No because we're compressing a ton of mass into a small size was how I read it.


Q:

No, my faith helped me survive what I did, but when people justify everything they do through religion it makes me wary.

A:

Never eaten one.


Q:

With the JWST launch expected in 2019, when will we expect to observe anything new that previous space telescopes were incapable of seeing? What are some potential discoveries that the JWST could facilitate?

A:

Did your Mormon faith have an effect on how you were able to make it through your experience? Is your faith any different now having gone through what you did?


Q:

Hi Mr Davis, I have been a fan of yours since I was very young, I spent many days pretending to be Wicket playing in the forrest near my home. But without a doubt Willow holds the closest place to my heart - do you have any stories about Val Kilmer from your time on the film and do you do any magic tricks yourself? Thanks and never stop being awesome!

A:

So many things! JWST is hopefully going to be able to see the first stars, see how the first galaxies form, and even do unprecedented work in extrasolar planets. You can read more about the science goals here.

We will probably also find a few things we just plain weren't expecting, based on how Hubble turned out.


Q:

Yes. My faith period played a big part on how I survived. Yes, my faith has changed. I’ve gotten older it’s widen, it’s expanded. it’s grown since I was a 14 year old girl.

A:

Val Kilmer once broke my pair of fake Ray-Ban sunglasses on purpose. Waited for me to get annoyed, then gave me 2 pairs of real Ray-Bans.

I learnt magic for Willow but don't practice any of the tricks now.


Q:

I have two girls who are young school age and they both love space. What are some things I can do to encourage their leaning process and love of space? We have a great science center locally which we visit often, and they have books and some TV they watch in that regard. My oldest is a voracious learner in second grade and needs some direction.

A:

Do you often get recognized when you're out and about? How do people react?

Thanks for hosting the AMA!!


Q:

Favorite sandwich?

A:

Any chance of them getting a telescope for Christmas or whatever holiday? :)


Q:

Yes, I get recognized all the time. Especially when I have no makeup on and greasy hair. But people are always very kind and just want to express well wishes and gratitude, but it should be expressing my gratitude to them.

A:

Cheese salad.


Q:

I think I remember you talked about maybe putting out a book at one point. Is that something you're still considering? Anything in the works?

A:

How do we change the mentality and social norms that make survivors of sexual abuse feel worthless?


Q:

Ha I'm just remembering how I once met you when you were in Woolacombe, it always stuck out to me that you took the time to meet and greet people who wanted to speak to you even though you had a bunch of people telling you that you had to get going. So thanks for being cool!

What's you're favourite moment from the Harry Potter series?

A:

I would still love to do it (have a book proposal pretty well done!), but unfortunately this PhD has taken longer than I was planning. :( But I guess my thesis will arguably be my first book.

I will however have the cover story for the February 2018 issue of Astronomy, which will come out late December. Keep an eye out!


Q:

Sexual abuse is so prevalent today chances are it’s not just one person you know that’s experienced sexual abuse, but many people that you know that have experienced it. We need to be able to address these issues openly, talk about them regularly, and be supportive when survivors do come forward.

A:

It's hard to choose 1 moment from 11 years of memories. I had a wonderful experience during that time. My fondest memories are of the people involved in the making of the films.


Q:

Hi, I've been a big fan of your posts, thanks for sharing so much fascinating informations about space! I've never been more excited on reddit than to see an "Astronomer here!".

Although it's completely impossible to predict, but perhaps from your beliefs, do you think we will ever discover other signs of life in the universe in our lifetime?

A:

When did you realise how big your story had become in the media? What was it like dealing with that in addition to the traumatic experience?


Q:

How are YOU, as a person?

A:

Signs of life? Yes!

Mind, I don't think it will be in the form of radio signals, or flying saucers, or anything Hollywood has led you to believe. Instead, exoplanet research these days is amazing- we can actually detect some elemental compositions of these planets now. Eventually, if someone detects free oxygen in large quantities in an atmosphere, that would be very hard to explain without life actively putting it there like plants do on Earth, because oxygen on its own rapidly oxidizes within a few thousand years.

I suspect though this process will be a bit like finding water on Mars, where first you find some evidence, but lots of caveats, then a bit more, until today pretty much everyone agrees there was water on Mars (and it's probably still there in some form). That's how the real scientific process tends to go, so I imagine life on other planets will be the same.


Q:

I’m still amazed at how big my story was and the interest people still have in it. Having everyone know who I was was probably the hardest part about coming back.

A:

A bit grumpy... as a GOBLIN!


Q:

Hi there! I am an undergrad at UofT and I am considering becoming an astronomer. What is the most rewarding part about astronomy to you? What recent discovery in any field of astronomy is the most exciting for you and why?

Also, I would really like to hear about what happened with the mild mountain gorilla.

A:

Are you an avid user of reddit? If so, how long have you been among us?


Q:

The power to control the world is in which finger?

A:

Hi! :) UofT is a great place to be an astronomer! I personally like astronomy because I love stories, and astronomy is the biggest story I can think up. And there is nothing quite like the feeling where you know something about the universe no one else knows (though in my case this doesn't last long, I'm usually texting friends and family in excitement within moments).

Most exciting recent story has to be the LIGO neutron star merger. Which, by the way, has a UofT connection- the person who took the spectrum and discovered all the gold and rare elements created in that merger is a Dunlap fellow, and just accepted a faculty offer!

As for the wild mountain gorilla, I touched on that here.


Q:

No, this is my first time.

A:

Your own, of course.


Q:

Will space-based telescopes ever get to a level of precision where we can image exoplanets directly / see features of these planets?

A:

Many religions teach from a young age that sex is to be saved for marriage, and that no one will want you if you've already had sex (a church teacher of mine used an analogy about nobody wanting chewed gum.)

Do you think the way this is taught can enable sexual abuse because victims don't want anyone to know they're "used"? How do you think this (admittedly difficult) subject should be taught to young people?


Q:

What role would you like to be remembered for?


Q:

I think it’s fine if it’s your belief to teach to wait to have sex until marriage; however I think it is imperative that no analogy like ‘chewed up gum’ be used, because no matter what your sexual orientation, preference, or when to have it is, it will not detract from your worth as a human being. So, yes, change needs to happen in the way it is taught.

A:

Not sure which role but as an actor who just happens to be short!


Q:

Does your experience as a woman in astronomy differ from that of men? In what ways (if any) has your gender affected how you’re treated by colleagues?

A:

On a lighter note, what's your favorite movie?


Q:

What were Mr Merchant and Mr Gervais like to work with?

Also, how did Johnny Depp fit in? Was it via Tim Burton? Did you meet Helen on Harry Potter?

A:

It does, unfortunately. I was harassed when I was in undergrad by a professor still prominent in the field, and I have had judgements about my work made by men based on my appearance and demeanor.

Unfortunately I'm not at a point in my career where I can share details, just take notes for my book someday. Thanks for understanding! :)


Q:

The BBC Pride and Prejudice, the six hour one.

A:

Stephen is very funny and a brilliant writer/performer. Ricky is sometimes like a 6yr old child - mischievous and silly.

Ricky just asked Johnny and he said yes.


Q:

As a man I don’t understand why women get discriminated. I’ve met many women smarter than me and never would I think “aww she doesn’t know what she’s talking about cause she’s a girl.” Even in a peer level I would assume your knowledge would be equivalent to the efforts you put in. Maybe it’s an old way of thinking that will die off.

A:

Did you see the Dave Chappelle bit on you during one of his specials? How did you feel about it, if so?


Q:

It's rarely an "I'm gonna be an asshole" type thing by an evil villain. Rather it's usually this sort of thing.

Plus there are just asshole men who like to assault and harass women, in all segments of society.

A:

If it’s the one I think it is, when I watched I felt bad. But now I could care less.


Q:

Is their anything special about the WOW signal?

A:

What advice would you give to recently returned American hostage Caitlan Coleman for moving forwards in her life now?


Q:

Not as much as Reddit thinks it was. It was honestly probably just what's called Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), which is a fancy way of saying "manmade signals."

A:

I have the same advice for all survivors no matter what their story is. That is the same advice that my mom gave to me: What has happened is terrible, there are no words to describe how wicked and evil they are, they have stolen 9 months of your life that you will never get back. But the best punishment you could give them is to be happy. By feeing sorry for yourself and reliving it is only allowing them to steal more of your life away from you. Obviously, the advice is tailored to your own specific circumstance. I don’t think this means you’ll never have a bad day again, or never struggle or feel frustration or anger. I think it just means have your end goal always be happiness.


Q:

All the media hoopla over that signal and it's nothing more than RFI caused by I Love Lucy reruns. I'm kind of disappointed.

A:

Do you like hamburgers? In your opinion, which chain burger is best?


Q:

The media is unfortunately really good at picking up anything Wow! signal related without really doing much follow-up. For example, there was some buzz about how comets caused the signal a few months ago- I wrote a rant here about why it was completely bogus.

A:

Love hamburgers. I’m going to say In-and-Out is the best.


Q:

Hello aspiring astronomer currently attending college for the subject. Space has always intrigued me since a young age. Any advice on how to get more involved in the astronomy scene? I read lots of articles and have tried to find groups for this sort of thing at the university I attend but it has been to no avail. Also what do you think about the trending theory on black holes possibly being gateways to 2D microverses.

A:

You can take 4 trips. Money and time don't really matter--but you have to go only to do the following: 1. Adventure 2. Culture 3. Relaxation 4. Adventure + Culture + Relaxation

Where do you go and why?


Q:

If you're an undergrad, definitely try and get into research! Look up REUs if you don't have any profs in your department who can offer research.

A:

My husband just asked me the same question. 1. Alaska for adventure, 2. India for culture 3. Toss up between Bali and Tahiti for relaxation, 4. You tell me where I can get Adventure + Culture + Relaxation.


Q:

What is the space related event (large sense, could be astronomical or let's say a telescope starting to produce images, or satellite getting into orbit) that you are most excited for in the future?

A:

Elizabeth, having read your book I first have to say how inspirational you are. To overcome what happened to you and to not look back is just amazing to me. I think you're an amazing role model for women everywhere.

I struggle with depression & anxiety and haven't been able to find the right career for myself yet despite being well-educated. I know one of the things you say is not to let the past define you, but I seem to have so much trouble letting go of my past experiences and dwell on what people must think of me. What is the key to moving forward from the past and letting it not burden you?


Q:

I am pretty psyched right now about a new radio telescope that just came online in Canada, called CHIME. It's hoping to address two fundamental mysteries in the universe, dark energy and Fast Radio Bursts!

Other than that, I saw the total solar eclipse last August and it was by far the coolest thing I've ever seen, so I'm really hoping to start seeing more of them ASAP. Chile 2019 FTW!

A:

I think it’s building a relationship with yourself, being comfortable with who you are and liking who you are.


Q:

Hey Andromeda! Love your subreddit and all you share with us. I don't have any great science questions up my sleeve, so:

Do you ever play around with amateur astronomy at all? I realize it doesn't have anything to do with real, professional astronomy but as a hobbyist I'm always interested if you folks ever dabble with backyard scopes at all.

And what are your top three beers?

A:

Whoa man, I'm kinda stuck on the beers thing right now. I am a big fan of anything out of Browerij t'IJ in Amsterdam (it's a brewery by a windmill! you can't lose!), especially the Natte and Zatte. To say an American one, I will usually order a Harpoon UFO when I'm in New England, and get crazy excited whenever I stumble across an Alaskan Amber.

As for amateur astronomy, I definitely did more when I was a teenager and had the lovely misconception that all astronomers know their constellations and can find stuff with telescopes. :) I will still volunteer once a month at the Toronto AstroTours where we get to play around with telescopes, but that's the extent of it right now!


Q:

Unsolicited follow-up question then: Did you have/do you have a favourite observing target when you dabbled on the amateur side?

A:

Saturn. Those rings! <3

For deep sky objects, I really love the Ring Nebula.


Q:

Hey, what's up?

A:

Not much, doing an AMA. You?


Q:

Have you nomed any astro objects yet?

A:

No, but I have my eye on you, Milky Way...


Q:

What name would you give to our beloved galaxy?

A:

I think Milky Way is a pretty good name actually. Is that boring?


Q:

Why not Twix or Bounty, if you are naming it after candybars?

A:

Copyright infringement.


Q:

So a few years ago I saw something I thought was a meteorite, but it was much lower and was on fire. It was fast and lasted a few seconds. It was bright but not light up the sky bright. More like a headlight in the distance. Would you know what it might have been? It also made an whooshing noise.

A:

It could have still been a meteor! (Meteorite= when they hit the ground) My experience is people tend to under-estimate the distance when one's closer to the horizon, and the atmosphere can do weird things if they enter at a low angle.

Unfortunately, I really can't say much more based on your description. Like, it could have also been some rocket reentry type thing, but that's more likely in certain parts of the world over others.


Q:

Do we know anything more about planet 9? Second questions, is there any further evidence that helps us determine what might be going around star KIC 8462852 or tabby's causing the odd dimming? What do you personally think it is?

A:

Tabby's star is most likely a weird comet swarm I think is where the money is.

Re: planet nine, I went to a cool talk about it and posted the notes onto my sub from that. Read about it here!


Q:

What's your favorite fact about the universe?

What are you the most excited about in the near future?

A:

In the near future, I'm signed up for this super sweet beer and history walking tour of Toronto this weekend. Or did you mean astronomical? ;-)

Soooo hard to choose a favorite fact. I'm gonna wimp out and say that I never feel scared about the universe and how big it is. Instead I just love the fact that we are small but a part of it all, and clearly a rare and special one because of all the places we've looked in the universe we're the only ones capable of staring back.


Q:

Since it’s been established that Gold is created by neutron stars crashing together, what age would you estimate terrestial gold is, and would you opine if it’s from the same or different neutron star collisions?

A:

It's all at least ~4.5 billion years old, because we know that's how old Earth is.

I really don't know the answer to the second yet, but then no one else does either. Right now we still don't know how far the gold spreads from one of these collisions.


Q:

Could we determine a lower limit on the dating based on when the first neutron stars were estimated to have formed and died?

A:

We could if we knew when the first stars were, but we haven't detected them yet.


Q:

Is the James Webb large enough to look that far (far back?)? Or are we going to need something the size of the new Chinese super scope, but in space?

A:

It is one of the key science goals for JWST!

Re: the Chinese space telescope, radio wavelengths are very different than what you see by eye, so you can't really compare one telescope to the other like that.


Q:

That's so awesome to know! Are the science for the JWST objectives on NASA's website? Also, I meant creating a telescope that functions like JWST but the at size of the Chinese telescope.

A:

Not that I'm aware, sorry.


Q:

When articles state the distance to an object in billion light years, I assume it is proper distance. However, with inflation and expanding universe, how old is the light really? How much closer was the object when an event like a supernova occurred?

A:

It depends. Things that are local (in our galaxy or cluster of galaxies) are gravitationally bound more than something like the acceleration of the universe would affect them. When we talk about something much further away (in billions of years) it depends how distant it is to us- astronomers in fact will use redshift as the unit of measure for very distant things.


Q:

Does it just feel weird knowing that the signals you are receiving and analyzing happened so long ago?

Side question: Do you have insurance against Mike Tyson? :)

A:

I honestly don't know anyone in astronomy who thinks about things like this, as we tend to always just discuss events in our Earth reference frame. It would be impossibly confusing otherwise, and statistically it doesn't really matter anyway (for example, we saw that neutron star collision millions of light years away, but if one's happening every few years does it really matter which one you see?).

I don't really know what your second question's about, so guess the answer is no!


Q:

What mysteries about the cosmos do you wish/hope/think will be solved or better understood in your lifetime?

Thanks for taking the time to answer and do this AMA. You're my favorite redditor. Whenever a post starts with "Astronomer here!" I know I'm about to learn some dope space shit. Please never stop sharing.

A:

Aww, thanks! :)

Beyond life on other planets (aka the boring question), I would really love to see quantum mechanics and gravity reconciled because that would explain so much about the underpinnings of our universe! Unfortunately I think there's a very good chance that doesn't happen in my lifetime- Newton and Einstein were separated by a few hundred years, for example.


Q:

Wow thanks so much for answering! A follow up question to your response if you have the time.

Do we experience gaps in our understanding of cosmic scale mechanics the same way we do at the quantum level? Since quantum physics seem to differentiate or deviate from the laws of physics to some extent (or entirely in some cases), is the same true on a much larger scale? Are there observations of grand scale cosmic activity that are inconsistent with our current understanding and theories of astrophysics?

A:

You're thinking about this wrong- it's not that quantum mechanics physics is wrong (there's actually twice as much evidence that it's right than gravitational physics!) but rather that they are not reconciled. Like, there is a very basic kind of math that you use in one, but does not work in the other, and that's the issue behind it.

Dark energy is probably the best example of something we do not understand in astrophysics, because no one expected it and no one has a clue on what it may be yet.


Q:

I understand our Moon's rotation is at such a speed that the same face faces the Earth and does not vary more than a degree or two. Do all moons do this? Do any planets do this to their respective suns?

A:

To answer your second question, no- none of our solar system planets do this with our sun for example!

What you're talking about is called tidal locking and depends on the size of the body in question and its distance from the other body. (So that's why our planets don't do this with the sun- they're all too far out.) Most major moons are tidally locked with their planets in our solar system though, as are Pluto and Charon to each other.


Q:

I've always been highly fascinated by space and everything in it but I never took it farther than the enjoyment I get from gathering miscellaneous bits of knowledge to myself and I still regularly find myself in moments of awe when learning new things..

My question is: How often do you find yourself blown away by what your work brings to you? How often do you go.. "Whoa.."

A:

I will still literally jump up and down and put on Queen's "Don't Stop Me Now" once or twice a year when something really cool is going on. :) That requires an exceptional level of excitement though!


Q:

Do you own a pair of space pants?

A:

No. A few space dresses though!


Q:

Why should I care about astronomy?
I mean no disrespect, but most of astronomy has always felt like it doesn't matter to life. There are some amazing pictures, but it's not like we are likely to make it past the closest stars if even remotely close to that. Most sciences have obvious relevance to life because we are impacted by them, but I have never felt that with Astronomy. I know Neil DeGrasse Tyson uses dangerous asteroids as an example, but outside of that.

A:

Because you never know where crucial knowledge will come from. Radio astronomy research is what makes wifi possible, for example!


Q:

What's a jackdaw?

A:

Dunno, I don't give a crap.


Q:

I’ve heard many theories as to what quasars actually are, the most common I’ve heard is that there young galaxies, is this correct and if not then what in your expert opinion are they?

A:

Quasars are thought to be the supermassive black holes in young galaxies that are very active. Active probably means "lots of material falling into it."


Q:

Have you ever been mistaken for an astrologist? Asked for a horoscope or something. Is that an annoyance for astronomers?

A:

It's happened. More awkward than anything.